GCRD 6356-03

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GCRD 6356-03

Ravaud & Stiker, Inclusion/Exclusion

The Social Bond - Social Cohesion vs. Social Dissociation

Constructing Inclusion in Modern Societies and its contradiction- The Normalization Processcompare populations to the statistical norm of society, idea of deviation, diagnosis and "fixing"- The Assimilation Model"desire for sameness", assisting an individual to join the group (positive discrimination/affirmative action)- The Differentiation Model"recognition of difference", separateness, identification as different, hierarchy (not all differences are considered at the same level)

History of Social Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion- Early societiesDisabled people have a fixed place and are in that sense completely integrated.- Modern societiesMore individualistic, more responsibility on individuals to create their own role

Typology of Diverse Forms of Exclusion and Inclusion - exclusion through eliminationdeath/elimination of people with disabilities- exclusion through abandonmentabandoning, "passive euthanasia", sending off to institutions- exclusion through segregation or differentiated inclusionseparating the individual from the group, maybe with the goal of reintegrating- exclusion through assistance or conditional inclusiondependence created through assistance, "weak form of social participation" (p. 506), being assisted as a sociological relationship- exclusion through marginalization or inclusion through normalizationputting people on the marings or bringing them closer to the norm by referring to the statistical mean- exclusion through discrimination or progressive inclusionidentifying differences in order to provide support and inclusion ("affirmative action")

Wolfensberger, Normalization theory

Durkheim, Mechanical and organic solidarity

Murphy, Liminality

Mauss, the Gift Exchange


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