Future Technologies

by mohan2
Last updated 2 months ago

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Future Technologies

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the next leap in computing and robotics. Artificial intelligence develops intelligent machines that can think, learn and adapt to data like human beings do with information. The ability to simulate a cognitive function like learning is what differentiates an intelligent machine from other computing machines. As a result, many of the present day jobs that require simple decision making might disappear in the next decade. But just like previous technology revolutions, AI will in turn create a whole new array of jobs for those who are willing to relearn and equip themselves.Companies like Swag Swami use Artificial Intelligence for complex data mining and inventory management.3D PRINTING Imagine producing a nut from a solid piece of metal. We will use a lathe to remove excess material and to create a hole and threads. This process is known as subtractive manufacturing (unwanted parts from a whole piece are removed). With 3D printing, we add layers of material until we get the desired object. So this is called additive manufacturing. This results in less wastage of material. How is this done? First, a digital 3D model of the object to be manufactured is created in the computer. A software then creates 2D slices of this object. Instructions to recreate these slices are written in machine language and the 3D printer executes these instructions layer upon layer to produce the physical object. Even complex machines can be produced with 3D printing.ROBOTICS The name robot is from Czech language and means labor/work. Karel Čapek popularized the term robot and Isaac Asimov coined the term robotics which is the study of and science related to robots. A robot is a machine that can be programmed to carry out a set of tasks, either simple or complex. Multiple disciplines like computing and information science and mechanical and electronic engineering work together in the creation of robots. Robots find usage in areas that are hazardous for human beings to work on like radioactive fields and bomb removal, highly complex industrial tasks that have to be done with precision and even in education as assistants to teachers! There is an ongoing debate on the usage of robots, especially how intelligent they have to be and how much autonomy needs to be built in. Despite these, robotics looks to grow multifold in the future.CANCER VACCINES A vaccine contains killed or weakened microbes of a disease causing organism. When injected into the human body, it triggers the body’s immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and destroy any microorganisms associated with the disease. This is called active acquired immunity. Vaccines can either be given for prevention of a disease, like polio and measles or can be given to control an existing disease, like cancer. Even in cancer, it can be given to prevent the occurrence of certain types of cancer or to treat existing cancers. Vaccines for cancers originating from viral source like cervical and liver cancers and from bacterial sources like stomach cancer due to Helicobacter pylori are already available. More complex vaccines for renal cancer and prostate cancer are also available. Cancer vaccines are in early stage of product development. Many have been abandoned in various phases of testing due to inefficacy and harmful side effects. However, this is an area that needs high priority research to eradicate one of the cruelest forms of disease that afflict human beings. STEM CELL THERAPY Stem cells are the raw material for our body structure. Our body is made up of multiple specialized cells like heart muscle, bone marrow, renal cells and brain cells. Stem cells are the raw material that differentiate into these specialized cells. That is how a fertilized human egg becomes an embryo and develops various organs. A stem cell can either create more stem cells or modify into specialized cells. It is this second trait that is being used in stem cell therapy to repair damaged tissue or regenerate disease affected tissues. Usage of stems cells in diseases like cancer, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease is being tested. This is one of the fastest growing areas of medicine and like any scientific breakthrough carries many ethical dilemmas on usage as well. Stem cells can be obtained from human embryos, amniotic and umbilical chord fluid and even from adult bone marrow.



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