Frederick Banting

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Frederick Banting

Frederick Banting

Who is Sir Frederick Grant Banting?On November 14 1891, Frederick Banting was born in Alliston, Ontario. He was the youngest of five with parents. With parents William Thompson Banting, a well-established farmer, And mother Margaret Grant Banting, who had moved to Canada from Ireland. He indulged in numerous extra-curricular activities at the various public schools he attended. His interest in diabetes stemmed from his school days when a classmate had died because of the disorder. His first career choice was the army but he couldn’t make it due to his poor eyesight. He started in an arts course leading to theology (the study of religion) at The University of Toronto before switching to medicine in 1912. Banting completed his education from the University of Toronto in the year 1916. He earned a place at the Canadian Medical Corps and served as a liaison officer between the British and North American through WWI. When he fought in Germany he was wounded, then given a Military Cross for heroism under fire. In 1920 Banting moved to London, Ontario, and opened a medical office. One evening, he read an article dealing with new discoveries in fighting diabetes, his interests bloomed again. In that same year, he went to his first interview with Dr. J. R Macleod. Dr. J. R Macleod was a Scottish biochemist and physiologist. At first, he had no hope for Banting’s dream. But after lots of persuasion, he agreed to let him use a lab for 8 weeks in the summer. He sent him with an intern who knew much about chemical techniques named Charles Best. They began on May 17, 1921. On November 14, 1921, Banting and Best presented their findings before the Physiological Journal Club of the University of Toronto. It was a huge success, and lead to winning the Nobel Prize in 1923 at age 32. Frederick Banting received jointly with Macleod, but he divided his share with Best. As well as receiving a Nobel Prize, he also was named 4th on the list of Great Canadians. Later on, The University Of Toronto established the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research with a special grant from the Ontario Legislature. In 1934 Banting was made a knight commander of the British Empire and the following year was elected a fellow (associate) of the Royal Society of London.Only 7 years later, on February 21 1941, He died at age 50 when the plane he was on (when he still served as liaison officer) crashed on his way to England. In his honour, in 1969 The Sir. Frederick Banting Secondary School was opened in London, Ontario.Personal Life:Although Banting loved medicine, his original dream was in art. He was told he was no good, but in 1921 he picked up painting, as opposed to sketching. He was married twice. His first marriage was to Marion Robertson in 1924; they had one child, William (1928). They divorced in 1932 and Banting married Henrietta Ball in 1937.

Other Uses Of InsulinInsulin was discovered/invented for the single purpose of treating diabetes. After the huge discovery, many other scientists have found other impressive uses from insulin. The most common use (other than for diabetes) is in many different intravenous medicines. Tiny `amounts of it can be found in the ingredients. It is also used in solutions that save people from heart failure and heart attacks. Connecting back to the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly, in their early years of insulin, they marketed it for weight loss and weight gain. It also increases muscle growth rather than fat, so body builders inject themselves with insulin, then eat carbs. It is used in electrolyte solutions for kidney treatment, there are traces of insulin in therapy for poison. In the1930s to the mid-1950s insulin was common in psychiatric treatment like putting people in a coma, In the hypoglycemic treatment, the patient is given a moderate amount of insulin. Enough to sleep for one hour due to restriction of glucose supply to the brain. It is an ingredient in organ-preserving concoctions. In 1977, Hal Huggins, an American campaigner discovered that injecting a small amount of insulin, doctors noticed small improvements in tumors, gum infections, ear problems, skin problems, and other conditions. There are many uses of insulin in big and small quantities that help many different uses. But the main/most useful use is for type 1 and 2 diabetes.

ThesisBefore Banting/insulin, many people all over the globe were dying because of the disease, diabetes. By discovering what insulin was, how to extract it from animals, and with help to cleanse it for human use, his work has been saving the lives of millions of people for years, and will be for generations to come.

Influence Of DiabetesDiabetes has been claiming lives for thousands of years. A diabetic's body is unable to utilize food's nutrients as energy, causing extra sugar to collect in blood and urine. Food simply "passes through" the body, without absorbing any nutrients. When you have high blood sugar in your blood its called Hyperglycemia. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Having too much sugar in the blood for long periods of time can cause serious health problems if not treated. High blood sugars can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in diabetics. These problems only occur when people use insulin improperly, it doesn’t usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, these health problems can occur in adulthood in some people with diabetes, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. In the olden days, these results occurred in every diabetic, much faster and much more deadly before insulin. Influence of insulin:Diabetes was around for many years before insulin. Insulin is and has always been the only effective treatment for diabetes, as I said in the paragraph above (Affect of diabetes) diabetes is a very fatal disease, and effects many people over the globe. Now, the only people who are struck with these consequences are people who are in don't take enough insulin, or people who can't afford it. Every one with diabetes was told they could die any time that year. And if they were really lucky, maybe a couple years more. Millions of lives were being pulled away just because of a few malfunctioning cells. Scientists went mad trying to find a cure/treatment for the diasease, but only after hundreds of years did anyone get to say they saved millions of diabetics. And that was Sir Frederick Banting. His discovery saved many, many lives including my own. Making the world a better place.

A Little Bit About InsulinInsulin is a hormone that our organ the pancreas produces. Insulin, although hugely helpful, is not a cure for diabetes. It’s a self-use treatment. It is the key that unlocks the cells so that our body can use energy from our food. The pancreas has at least two functions: to produce digestive juices and to secrete a substance that regulates blood glucose. People with type 1 diabetes bodies can no longer produce insulin at all, therefor bringing glucose levels way above natural levels, it is most common for children to be diagnosed. Where as type 2 diabetic’s body is resistant to insulin, this is typically diagnosed in adults.

History Of DiabetesFor 2,000 years diabetes has been recognized as a devastating and deadly disease, it has been recognized since ancient times all over the world. In the first century A.D. Greek, Aretaeus an ancient physician named "diabetes" from the Greek word for "siphon." Many different places in the world had many different treatments that they thought helped them spiritually and medically. Physicians in ancient times, like Aretaeus, recognized the symptoms of diabetes but were powerless to effectively treat it. In ancient Egypt, they used to use treatments from water, ground earth, bones, wheat, and lead. In the 17th century a London physician, Dr. Thomas Willis, determined whether his patients had diabetes or not by sampling their urine. If it had a sweet taste he would diagnose them with diabetes mellitus- "honeyed" diabetes, this method of monitoring blood sugars went largely unchanged until the 20th century. In the early 20th century diabetologists such as Dr. Frederick Allen prescribed low calorie diets-as little as 450 calories per day for his patients. The diet lengthened the lives of people with diabetes, but kept them weak and suffering from near starvation. Before 1921 (insulin) it was exceptional for a diabetic to live 2 years after diagnosis. No other treatment other than starvation show good results, dying diabetics were kept in wards with 50 or more people and their families awaiting their death. When insulin arrived to the wards in 1922, diabetics woke one by one from there deep sleep (coma.)

Timeline Of Insulin- 1889 to German researchers, Oskar Minkowski & Joseph Mering discovered the setting of the disease was in the pancreas- 1910 Sir Albert Sharpey-Shafer discovered the problem was because of the absence of one chemical he named after the Greek word “insula” translated into island - In early 1921 Banting and Best started experimenting with dogs and ducks, experimenting with ten dogs that all passed away shortly after they removed their pancreases- After many months, Banting and Best found ways to extract the hormone from the dogs and ducks, then shortly after from pigs,cattle- 1921 they kept a dog named Marjorie alive for 70 days, then decided to start using it for human use.- On January 11, 1922 Leonard Thomson was first injected with insulin extracted from cattle at age 14. He was a dying patient at The Toronto General Hospital, the insulin took his deadly high blood sugars to a normal level. But at that stage the medicine was still impure, he suffered a major allergic reaction.- Canadian chemist James B. Colip spent 12 days in the lab working to purify the first stages of insulin- 1923 Insulin spread like a wildfire, in the same year Banting and Macleod won Nobel Prize awards and generously shared them with Best and Colip- 1923 Eli Lilly sold insulin in large volumes, distributing 60 million units of insulin from early spring to the year’s end although they only started to sell it commercially that October.- 1936 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals introduced an insulin that could lower your blood sugars over a longer period of time called long acting insulin- many people were allergic to the animal made insulin, in 1982 the company Eli Lilly discovered how to make biosynthetic insulin out of E-coli bacteria. The company called it “Humalog” and was first to commercially sell it.- Since then scientist have produced it in many forms, and will remain the treatment until a cure is found.

Sources 1)http://diabetesstopshere.org/2012/08/21/the-history-of-a-wonderful-thing-we-call-insulin/2)http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/175616.php3)http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/insulin/discovery-insulin.html4)http://www.iptq.com/other_uses.htm5)http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ba-Be/Banting-Frederick.html6)http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/frederick-banting-416.php7)http://www.tvdsb.ca/Banting.cfm?subpage=78097

Sources1)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Banting2)https://harvardmagazine.com/1999/01/mice.html3)https://www.lillyindia.co.in/pdf/insulindiscovery.pdf4)http://www.cbsnews.com/news/371-million-people-have-diabetes-globally-about-half-undiagnosed/5)http://www.trumanlibrary.org/histday/insulin/diabetes-before-insulin.html6)http://kidshealth.org/teen/diabetes_center/basics/high_blood_sugar.html

Pharmaceutical Companies Connected to Insulin There are two huge companies associated with the development of insulin, Eli Lilly and Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals. Eli Lilly was founded by Col. Eli Lilly (July 8, 1838 – June 6, 1898). He was an American soldier, pharmaceutical chemist, industrialist. He opened his own business in 1876. Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals goes back 90 years. It began with the two small Danish companies Nordisk Insulin Laboratorium and Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium founded in 1923 and 1925. The two companies started the production of the revolutionary new drug insulin that had just been discovered by two Canadian scientists(Banting and Best). Both companies can be thanked for our new insulins and how they came to be.


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