Franklin Delano Roosevelt

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the state senator of New York for two terms, achieved the post of Assistant Secratary of the U.S. Navy, elected for New York's governor for two terms, helped set up the "March of Dimes" organization to help find cure for polio, and served as president for four terms or twelve years.

Twentieth-Century History Makers Franklin D. Roosevelt, written by Franklin Watts, published 2003 by Steck-Vaughn Publishers in Austin, Texas


Franklin D. Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882 at Hyde Park to wealthy James and Sara Roosevelt. F.D.R. spent most of his time with adults or by himself during his childhood, and he was educated at home until age 14, where he was sent to a boarding school called Groton. He became a good sailor as he learned to sail on vacations and came to love the sea and ships. He started thinking about politics after Theodore Roosevelt, a distant cousin, spoke at Groton School. He left Gronton in 1900 to go to Harvard College. His father died at age 72 while Franklin was at Harvard, and his mother Sara came to live in Boston. As a result of Franklin meeting Eleanor Roosevelt, another distant cousin, at his 21st birthday celebration in 1903, they were married on March 17, 1905 in New York. After graduating from Harvard, he was accepted into Columbia Law School in New York and graduated in 1907. When the Democratic Party asked him to run for state senator of New York, he accepted and won the election. A veteran newspaper reporter named Lewis Howe offered to help him run for his second term and win the election and when Roosevelt was caught by typhoid fever. He was offered the position of Assistant Secratary of the U.S. Navy as a reward from President Woodrow Wilson for supporting him as Democratic candidate. When World War I broke out, he urged a prompt expansion of the Navy. He proposed nations band together as League of Nations after he attended the Versailles Peace Conference. He was asked to be the vice president of Democratic Presidential candidate, though the Republicans won. He resumed to his legal career, was appointed vice president of a bonding firm, and devoted his spare time to other activities. In the summer of 1921, he was diagnosed with poliomyelitis (polio), which left him paralyzed below the waistline. In 1926, he bought a spa in Georgia called Warm Springs, turning it into a treatment center for suffers of polio. In January 1, 1929, he was sworn in as governor of New York after beating his Republican opponent. With the start of the Great Depression in 1929, Roosevelt introduced the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration (TERA) in August 1931 as the crisis deepened, as the first state administration to intervene to help the unemployed this way. Roosevelt decided to run for the Democratic nomination in 1932 presidential elections just after winning his second term as governor of New York in 1930. He won the 1932 election, and he introduced the New Deal, which introduced new agencies and acts to get people and the United States back on work and achieve some prosperity. Roosevelt addressed America through radio broadcasts, and became known as Roosevelt's "fireside chats." Regular press conferences wre held on the White House, where Roosevelt held open, relaxed sessions which allowed journalists to ask any question they liked. His second term as president began after beating the Republican candidate in 1936. As foreign countries threatened peace and stability, with the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Roosevelt made sure the United States would remain a neutral country, especially because he didn't want to go against the Congress and its Neutrality Acts (which prohibited American troops going off to fight except in self defense a and the export of armaments) when Roosevelt was trying to pass laws of the New Deal. However, as the war progressed, Congress allowed to lift the prohibition of exporting arms and approved a build-up of the armed forces and a major weapons expansion program. This provided jobs and lowered the unemployment rate. Roosevelt decided to run for a third term in 1940, which he won against the Republican candidate. The Lend-Lease Act was proposed by F.D.R. and passed by Congress, and Roosevelt met British prime minister Wonston Churchill for the first time. As a result of the United States declaring a trade embargo on Japan, Japanese forces attacked the naval base Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which caused Congress to declare war on Japan and Gearmany to join the Japanese. Roosevelt made efforts to defeat the enemy, end the conditions that led to the war, and to create close relationships with its allies. He reluctantly signed the order to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps with pressure from media, the Army, and local politicians. Roosevelt had many conferences between Churchill, Soviet leader Stalin, and himself. The Alloes defeated Italy in 1943 and Germany in early 1945. In 1944, he ran for the fourth term as president and beat his opponent for the fourth time. Not soon after, he started not feeling well, and he went to Warm Springs to rest. Franklin D. Roosevelt suffered a brain hemorrhage, which led to his death on April 12, 1945, before the end of World War II.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the first president to win four elections and serve as president for twelve years. Roosevelt dealt with what is called the greatest problems of the first half of the twentieth century: the Great Depression and World War II. He increased the role of the federal government in the lives of people in America. Rather than staying in the White House, he used the media, such as newspapers, newsreels, and most importantly, the radio, to communicate with the American people. He helped lead the United States away from isolationism to intervention in international affairs; he tried to ensure new international organizations would be able to have impact on the world after the end of World War II, such as the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund. F.D.R. was inspirational with his response to disability: not only did he deal with polio courageously and cheerfully, he made immense efforts to help polio patients. To aid finding a cure for polio, he helped the establishment of the "March of Dimes."


January 30, 1882 Born in Hyde ParkSeptember 1896 Enters Groton School in Massachusetts 1900 Accepted at Harvard UniversityMarch 17, 1905 Marries Eleanor Roosevelt, a distant cousin of F.D.R.November 1910 Elected as Democrat to the New York State Senate1912 Re-elected to the SenateMarch 1913 Appointed as the Assistant Secratary of the Navy(1914~November 1918 World War I)July 1920 Democrats nominate James Cox for president with F.D.R. as vice president November 1920 Democrats are defeated by RepublicansAugust 1921 Contracts the disease of poliomyelitis (polio)1927 Establishes Warm Springs Spa, in Georgia, as treatment center for people infected by polio November 1928 Elected as governor of New York (October 1929 Wall Street Crash; the collapse of the stock market)August 1931 Roosevelt establishes Temporary Emergency Relief Administration (TERA)November 1932 Defeats Herbert Hoover and F.D.R. is elected President of the United StatesMarch 4, 1933 Presidential inauguration1933 F.D.R. begins the New Deal; creates Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) and Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) in May 12 and the National Recovery Administration (NRA) and the Public Works Administration (PWA) in June 161935 Establishes Works Progress Administration (WPA) in April; the Supreme Court invalidates the NRA and the AAA in May; National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is established with the Wagner Act, July; Social Security Act passed in AugustNovember 1936 Defeats Republican candidate in the presidential election and begins his second term as President(September 1939 Outbreak of World War II)November 1940 Defeats Wendell Wilkie in the presidential elections; beginning of the third termMarch 1941 Passing of the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed arms to be leased to countries during the warAugust 1941 Meets Winston Churchill, British prime minister, for the first time, and signs the Atlantic Charter(December 7, 1941 Congress declares war on Japan after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor)1942 Creation of the War Leaderboard and accepts the "Declaration of the United Nations" along with other Allied countries; beginning of internment of Japanese-Americans in February1943 Casablanca Conference in January with F.D.R. and Winston Churchill; Tehran Conference in November between Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Stalin November 1944 Defeats Republican candidate in the presidential elections for the fourth term as presidentFebruary 1945 Yalta Conference between F.D.R., Winston Churchill, and StalinApril 12, 1945 Death of Roosevelt from brain hemorrhage, after returning to Warm Springs

Lasting Impact


Franklin D. Roosevelt


By Satoya Koizumi


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