[2015] Keerthana Balaji (IMS Grade 7 SFMandell, IMS GRADE 8 SFMandell): Forensics

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Life Science
Grade:
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[2015] Keerthana Balaji (IMS Grade 7 SFMandell, IMS GRADE 8 SFMandell): Forensics

Blood Cells:Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)- These are the most common cells in our blood and carry our oxygen to other cells by using the protien it contains, hemoglobin. This cell is actually produced by the bone marrow.White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)- These cells are a part of the immune system and help fight off any illnesses or pathegons.Plasma- This is a yellowish liquid that contains nutrients and vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, clotting factors and protiens like antibodies which help fight illnesses. Platelets (Thrombocytes): These are the clooting factors that the plasma carries. These come together and clot when we are hurt or wounded.

Blood Basics:Do you know how much blood is in our body? Or do you know the different types of blood? Well, just so you know let's discuss the topic of blood. Blood Facts:In our body, we have 5 Liters of blood. This makes up 7-8% of our body weight. In our blood we have blood cells too. Just within, 2-3 droplets of blood, there are 1 billion red blood cells. For every 600 blood cells there is one white blood cell. But for every 40 platelets, there is one white blood cell. Blood TypesThere are 3 types of alleles for our blood type: A, B & O. Since we have 2 genes, mom and dad, there are 6 conbinations possible: AA; AO; BB; BO; OO; or AB.

Fire and Arson:Now let’s talk about fire and arson investigation. Let’s start off with fire investigation terms. •Fire - This substance is produced when fuel and oxygen go through a high amount of heat and light •Fire Triangle – Shows the three elements needed to create and support a fire.•Flash Point – The lowest temperature to which a substance must be heated in order for the substance to give off vapors which will burn when exposed to a flame or ignition source.•Point of Origin – The area where the fire originally began•Burn patterns –Patterns created by the fire while it burns that are obvious •Accelerants – Substances that hasten the burning of the fire. Examples include gasoline, paint thinner, and alcohol.•Arson – A fire that arose intentionally/ by someoneMoving onto the Fire Triangle. This shows the things needed to create a fire. The 1st item needed is Fuel. Fuel is inflammable in any state of condition: solid, liquid, or even gas. The next item neede is Oxygen. About 16% oxygen is needed for the object to burn. That’s 5% less than the amount of oxygen we breathe. The last item is heat. “Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur” (Source A, Fire & Arson PPT). So remember, to make a fire you need Fuel+Oxygen+Heat. DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME!! Finally let’s talk about Arson cases in America. “According to the FBI Crime Index, juvenile and adult arson cause an annual average of 560,000 fires, 750 deaths, 3,700 injuries, and $1.5 billion in property loss. 55% of all arson arrests in the US are children under 18” (Source A, Fire & Arson PPT).

Forensic AnthropologyWhat do Forensic Anthropologists do? Well, forensic anthropologists examine bones/skeletal remains to figure out the story behind his/her life, cause of death of the victim, and other hints about the crime. The main features that the anthropologists look for during the examination include sex/gender, age and stature, and race. They determine the sex of the victim by examining the skull, femur, humerus, and pelvis. The age and stature can be determined by analyzing the growth of the teeth and bones, your cranial structure, and the length of specific bones such as the femur. The last characteristic to be determined is race. For this, you must examine the skull and look for specific attributes that are common among people in that specific race. Something else that you learn from bones is DNA samples. This can be gathered from bones, teeth, and hair to give information to find out about a person’s identity. As you can see, bones can be very helpful to find answers to a crime!

Forensic Entomology:Forensic Entomologists:To provide information for criminal investigations, Forensic entomologists apply their knowledge of entomology.Job of forensic entomology are as follows:•The various stages of insect life cycle are identified as eggs, larva and adults.•The evidences are collecting and preserving the insects.•Determining an estimate for the postmortem interval or PMI (the time between death and the discovery of the body) includes using factors such as insect evidence, weather conditions, location and condition of the Blow flies which are attracted to dead bodies and often arrive within minutes of the death of an animal. They have a complete life cycle that consists of egg, larva, pupa, and adult stagesThe Life cycle of a Blow Fly:The adult flies lays eggs, around the openings of the dead body like eyes, nose, ears, anus etc or the wound areas. Then, within 1 or 2 days, the eggs hatch, this stage is called the maggots (larva). This continues to grow, the exoskeletons undergoes multiple stages called instars.Within 20 hours it grows into 5 mm long, then it grows into 10 mm in 2½ days, and then around 16mm long in 4 to 5 days. Then, with the help of surrounding soil and burrow this 17mm long larvae becomes pupa. Then, after 6 to 8 days, the adult flies come out of the pupa cases.

Don't lie or else you too will get a long nose like Pinocchio!

CitationsSource A: http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classforsci.htmlSource B: http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug04/detecting.aspxSource C: http://www.exploreforensics.co.uk/forensic-cases-murder-leanne-tiernan.html

Hair & FibersHairs and fibers can be very useful in solving a crime. Hairs are made up of keratin, which is also the main substance in toe nails and fingernails. Hair can also be tested for DNA. But for this, the roots must be present. This one type of DNA, Mitochondrial DNA, can be tested even if the root is absent. Now let’s talk about fibers. Fibers are the smallest type of fabric material. These help because during murder cases and so, fabrics from the murders shirt might stick onto the victim’s clothing. Using this fiber, crime scene investigators can track down the murder and arrest him!

Chromatography“Chromatography is the physical separation of a mixture into its individual components” (Source A, Chromatography PPT).Examples:Liquid ChromatographyUsed to identify undiscovered pigments in a plantThin-Layer ChromatographyThin plastic or glass trays are used to identify how many pigments and chemicals are made.Gas Chromatography:Used to determine what chemicals a material is made ofPaper ChromatographyUsed to separate components of inks, dyes, etc.

Forensic Glog!!By: Keerthana Balaji

Deceptions and LiesHow can you tell if someone is lying or not? Well, the first clue is facial expressions. Liars tend to act less fidgety but they don't really blink or sit straight and calmly. Not only will facial expressions give it away but, investigators will also closely watch the language and the way the deceptionist is speaking. According to Bella DePaulo and Wendy Morris " 'Liars' answers sound more discrepant and ambivalent, the structure of their stories is less logical, and their stories sound less plausible,' they say. Liars also use fewer hand movements to illustrate their actions but are more likely to repeat words and phrases" (Source B). While writing, liars avoid talking about themselves or anything related to them. Other than this liars use many words like hate, against, dissapointed, because it has been noted that fibber is generally very anxious and guilty. As you can see, figuring out who is a truthteller an is a prevaricator is not that hard!

The Murder of Leanne TiernanHow would you feel if you were just randomly walking your dog and then you randomly approached a dead body. Well that's what happened with this man. While walking his dog, he approached 16-year old Leanne Tiernan who was laying on the floor dead with "a black plastic bag over her head, held in place with a dog collar, with a scarf and cable tie around her neck, and cable ties holding her wrists together. Her murderer had then wrapped her body in green plastic bin liners tied with twine" (Source C). After seeing this, he had told the police and the investigation had begun. When the police were tracking down all the supplies, they saw that the dog collar was originally owned by a poacher named John Taylor who was seen in the woods often. The twine that was used in the murder, is a rare kind that is used for rabbit hunting. The same kind of twine was found in John Taylor's house. The investigators also found some hairs on the scarf. When they examined it for DNA, they found that the DNA matched John Taylor's DNA. As more and more evidence was found, John Taylor visit to jail became closer. Finally, in October 2001, John Taylor was arrested and put in jail for 2 life times.


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