[2015] Ekta Patel (IMS Grade 7 SFMandell, IMS GRADE 8 SFMandell): Forensic Science

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[2015] Ekta Patel (IMS Grade 7 SFMandell, IMS GRADE 8 SFMandell): Forensic Science

Crime scenes are the locations in which a crime has occurred. There are two types of crime scenes: a primary crime scene and a secondary crime scene. A primary crime scene is the original location of a crime. A secondary crime scene is a location in which any evidence may be found related to the crime. To assure that no evidence is destroyed at the crime scene, police officers, the first ones at the crime scene, secure the scene. The CSI unit records and documents the crime scene in detail. Detectives interview witnesses, consult with the CSI unit, and investigate the crime by following leads provided by witnesses and physical evidence.

Blood is the living tissue that carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body, and carries waste products back to the lungs, kidneys, and liver for disposal. There are four main and significant things that make up the blood in our bodies: red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, and platelets. Red blood cells consist of hemoglobin (proteins) that transfer oxygen into out cells, are produced in the bone marrow, and they are the most abundant cells in our blood. White blood cells are part of the immune system and they destroy pathogens. Plasma consists of electrolytes, nutrients, vitamins, hormones, clotting factors, and proteins. Plasma is the liquid portion of blood. Platelets are transferred into the plasma. They clot together to seal a wound to prevent an increase of blood loss. Platelets clot together in a certain process called coagulation. There are about one billion red blood cells in few drops of blood. For every 600 red blood cells, there are about 400 platelets and 1 white cell. There are four blood types: A, B, AB, and O. Each blood type has a different percentage for how common it is. Type A is 38.8%, type B is 11.1%, type AB is 3.96%, and type O is 46.1%. Type O can donate blood to anyone; it lives up to its name, the "Universal Donor". Type AB also lives up to its name being the "Universal Recipient" for receiving blood from any other blood type. A person with Rh + blood may receive blood that is + or -, while a person with Rh - blood can only receive - blood.

A forensic entomologist has four major tasks to do. Identifying insects at stages of their life cycle is one of them. The life cycle includes eggs, larva, pupa, and adults. Collecting and preserving insects, as evidence is another task their job may include. The last two jobs are to determine an estimate for the PMI and testifying in court to explain insect-related evidence at a crime scene.Thinking about insects as evidence to help solve a crime may seem ridiculous, but it is true. Forensic entomologists conduct many tests to figure out any information that may give them a clue to help solve a crime. Flies and beetles are the two major insects used to uncover information about solving a crime. Insects are also chosen as to how they like to feed on the corpse. Some may like to feed on a fresh corpse and others on old ones. Weather plays a huge role as to the information an insect can provide us. Temperature is recorded for a period of time before the corpse is found to the time the insect evidence is collected.

Science plays a major role in solving crimes. The process of solving a crime works like the scientific method. Collecting evidence at the crime scene is one of the main steps as to where to start. The area of the crime scene is scrutinized with a lot of caution so nothing is overlooked. Evidence is placed in plastic bags or containers with gloves when found and taken to a lab to get further examination done. Many experiments and tests are conducted on the evidence found so the investigators can proceed further on their investigation. The evidence is compared to reference files and computer databases. The information is analyzed until a culprit is found. To do further examinations, other scientists can do more research with their knowledge. Such scientists include: anthropologists, biologists, chemists, odonatologists, entomologists, geologists, pathologists, psychologists, etc.

Fire is produced when a substance involving heat and light gets in contact with oxygen rapidly. The fire triangle consists of the three elements needed to produce and sustain a fire. The three elements are fuel, heat, and oxygen. Fire catches on any combustible material in any state of matter; for example: clothing, furniture, paper, etc. and it also requires an atmosphere of at least 16% oxygen to burn. Heat requires energy, which is needed to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point when vapors are given off for the fire to start. You may ask how fire is involved in crime. The answer to this is arson, which is a deliberate fire. Investigators search for the point of origin and burn patterns. The point of origin is where the fire first started. Burn patterns are just that, patterns made as fire burns. Burn patterns are specified into two categories; char patterns and v-patterns. Char patterns occur when the fire moves swiftly leaving sharp lines. A char pattern on a door indicates which side of the door the fire was on. Char patterns on the floor indicate the accelerant and its path. V-patterns live up to their name; the fire leaves patterns in V shapes. Narrow V-patterns can make us assume that the fire was very high in temperature. Wide V-patterns can make us assume that the fire was burning slowly. U-shapes can lead us to thinking that a spread out accelerant started a fire, leading the point of origin to become the pool of origin.

What's the truth?


Forensic Science


Fire& Arson

You can't hide forever.


Crime Scenes

Using Science to Solve Crimes

Sherlock Homes Sherlock Holmes used forensic science to solve his cases. His first case in which fingerprints are mentioned is The Sign of the Four. The 55th story, which is 36 years later, fingerprints are still used to solve his cases. Footprints are also used in Holmes's analysis. They were used in the first story until the 57th. The Boscombe Valley Mystery is solved only by the use of footprints. Holmes is an expert when it comes to footprint analysis, as he can analyze on any surface: clay, soil, carpet, and even curtain. Ciphers and dogs are also used in his crime cases. Many codes are solved with the ciphers and he used dogs to find many hidden objects and clues with the scent. He was an early user of dogs to solve crime and he seemed to be one of the first ones to understand the method of the dogs tracing scents.


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