Florida's Black Seminoles

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Florida's Black Seminoles

The Seminoles were a group of indians who came to Florida in the early 1800s. They accepted runaway black slaves into their society and basically recruited other slaves and Indians while everyone was trying to escape Britain's watch. In 1962, the Miccosukee Indians considered themselves to be part of the Seminoles. In the early 18th century, the Seminoles and the Miccosukees were forced into swamps to the south of them and into Oklahoma to the west of them. The Seminoles spoke two different languages, Muskogee and Hitchiti. They considered themselves to be children of the sun.

Linlee Franklin 8SS3

Florida's Black Seminoles

Dear Diary,This is the third day in hiding that Osceola has put us in. Wakiza keeps begging me to let him fight. As his mother, I keep showing him all the women that kill their children just because they cry and could give away our hiding place. Then I tell him to look at how cruel we are and think about it a lot worse and that is what fighting in the war would be like. The other women look at me and say "Hachi, silence your son before we have to ourselves." Wakiza does not realize how much danger he is with his own mother. I guess he is living up to his name of “desperate warrior.” I am wishing for my husband, Nokosi, to arrive home from this terrible war. I fall asleep at night listening to the occasional scream of a terrified child, soon silenced. This occurs very often. It happened not to long before I started this entry. I just hope no one finds out secret spot before Nokosi or Osceola returns. Please come-

In total, there were three conflicts between the Seminole Indians and the United States. The first was in 1817 through 1818. It was started by the U.S. authorities trying to reclaim runaway black slaves that the Seminoles had taken in. General Andrew Jackson had U.S. military forces raid the villagers, burning their homes, and seizing Pensacola and St. Marks. In 1819 Spain was induced to cede its Floridian territory under the standards of the Transcontinental Treaty.The second confluict was in 1835-1842. It was because most Seminoles refused to leave the reservation that had been specifically planned for them, north of Lake Okeechober and to move west of the Mississippi River. Whites attempted to rid themselves of them with the Indian Removal Act. Chief Osceola lead the Seminole warriors and vigorously fought to save their homes. The U.S. captured Osceola and only then did the Indians back down and agree to migrate. The last war was from 1855-1858 and was caused by the U.S.' effort to look for the Seminole remnant left in Florida. It wasn't much of a bloody battle and in conclusion, the United States paid most of the remaining Seminoles to move West.

The Treaty with the Seminoles was created in 1832. The treaty was between the Seminoles and the United States. It stated that the Seminoles agreed to leave their lands in Florida and move west of the Mississippi. Some of it stated that the United States would pay them $15,400 to be split among all the chiefs and warriors. Other parts said that the United States would distribute a blanket and homespun frock to every warrior, women, and child of the Seminole Tribe once they arrived in their new land. ALthough keep in mind, the Seminoles never surrendered to the United States. It was settled by an agreeent.

Seminoles today stand everywhere. Although, most of them were relocated to Oklahoma, as stated in the Treaty with the Seminoles, but some Seminoles remained in Florida. Today the Seminoles own only 10% of what they were originally given in the treaty. When OKlahoma was trying to become a state, some Indian tribal members were given land. In 1906, a year before Oklahoma became a state, tribal government was dissolved. Although in today's society, Seminoles are widely known for Florida State University's football team.

Chief Osceola

Fun Fact: Seminole means "runaway" or "wild"


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