[2013] Trisha Nguyen: First Semester Standards

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by mikeeby
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Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Physics
Grade:
8

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[2013] Trisha Nguyen: First Semester Standards

First Semester StandardsBy: Trisha Nguyen

SPS5 (phases of matter)-

SPS6 (properties of solutions)-

SPS7 (energy)-

SPS1 (atoms)-

SPS8 (force, mass, and motion)-

SPS4 (periodic table)-

What is matter? Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter can be in three ( or four) different states. This is called State of Matter. State of Matter is the physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas (and plasma).

What is an atom?An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element. Everything in the universe is made up of atoms. There are three parts to an atom. These parts are the neutrons, electrons, protons. The nucleui is the center of the atom, which consists of the neutrons and the protons. The numbers of protons in an atom determines the identity of an element.

SOLID- The molecules that make up a soild are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. They are held firmly in place but can vibrate within a limited area. LIQUID- The molecules that make up a liquid flow easily around one another. They are kept from flying apart by attractive forces between them. Liquids assume the shape of the containers. GAS- The molecules that make up a gas fly in all directions at great speeds. They are so far apart that the attravtive forces between them are insignificant. PLASMA- At the very high temperatures of stars, atoms lose their electrons. The mixture of electrons and nuclei results in the plasma stae of matter.

Charges- Neutrons: NeutralProtons: Positive Electrons: Negative

Ionic Bonds-

In a Covalent bond, electrons are shared between two or more atoms. Atoms try to fill their outermost shell with valance elctrons. Covalent bonds occur betwwen non-metal atoms.

In an Ionic bond, electron(s) are transferred from one atom to another. Ionic bonds occur between non-metal and metal atoms. Atoms try to fill their outermost shell with valance elctrons. Atoms with the most electrons gain elcetrons whicle atoms with less electrons lose electrons.

Covalent Bonds-

What is the Periodic Table?The periodic table is a table consisting of 118 different elements. The table is divided into 11 element groups, which are: Alkalai Metals (yellow), Alkaline Earth Metals (brown), Lanthanides (purple), Actinides (red), Transition Metals (green), Unknown Properties (white), Post-transition Metals (grey), Metalloids (purple-y grey), Other Non-metals (blue), Halogens (light blue), and Nobel Gases (orange).The number of valance electrons is the atomic number of the element.

What is force?Force is a push or a pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of the object; force has size and direction.What is mass?Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.What is motion?Motion is an object change in position relative to a reference point.What is the difference between mass and weight?Mass is a meaure of the amount of matter in an object while weight is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe. Mass always stays the same while weight changes depending on the gravitational force. Mass does not depend on gravitational pull, but weight does.Newton's three laws:-Inertia: the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion unless an outside force acts on the object-Relationship between force, mass, and acceleration: A= F/M or F= M x A-Equal and opposite forces: whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.

What are soultions?Solutions are a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersed.SOLUTE: in a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent. SOLVENT: in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves. CONDUCTIVITY: of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity. CONCENTRATION: the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore

What is energy?In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.CONDUCTION: In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed. CONVECTION: the movement of matter due to differences in density; the transfer of energy due to the movement of matter. RADIATION: radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

Compare and Contrast Acids and Bases-An acid is any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water. A base is any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Acids and bases are both compounds, which are a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds. Both react with litmus, release ions in solutions, and form salt and water when combined. Acids taste sour while bases taste bitter. Acids reacts with bases and bases react with acids. Acids has pH lower than 7 while bases have pH higher than 7.


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