[2014] Amara: First Semester Concepts

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[2014] Amara: First Semester Concepts

First Semester Concepts

By: Amara M.

SPS1: Atoms

Atoms are the basic unit of a chemical element. Within an atom, there is a nucleus in the center that contains protons and neutrons. Orbiting that nucleus is the shell that contains electrons. Protons and electrons provide the atom with a positive or negative charge depending on the number of each insode the atom. Most atoms have equal numbers of protons and electrons, giving it a charge of zero. Some atoms have equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and when some differnt variations of the same atom have a differnt number of neutrons than the original atom. This is called an isotope. Isotoped vary in atomic mass, but not chemical property. Similarly, when an atom has a different number of protons, both the atomic mass and number vary, but not the chemical property.

However, when there is a different number of electrons, this is chemical bonding, by either covalent or ionic bonds. A covalent bond takes place between two or more nonmetals and they share electrons so that they all have a full outer shell. When an atom has only one electron o the most outer shell and another atom needs just one more, an ionic bond can form if one of them is a nonmetal and a metal. The atom with an extra electron could give it to the one in need so that they both have full shells and becaome stable.ou add the number of each together, you get the atomic mass. However, the atomic nu,mber is simply the number of protons in an atom.

SPS4: Periodic Table

SPS5: Phases of Matter

The periodic table is arranged based on the similarities shared beteen the elements. The numbers abovethe groups show the number of valence electrons in each element. This means that elements in the same group have the same number of electrons on their outer shell.. In the picture above, the elements in the orange that are on the right are the nonmetals. The ones in purple betwen the metals and nonmetals are the metalloids, whch possess qualities similar to both metals and nonmetals. In the blue in the middle and bottom are the metals.

SPS8: Newton Three Laws

SPS7: Transformations/Flow of Energy

SPS6: Solutions

Newton made threen laws about physics. INertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. This happens when you are driving in a car and the car suddenly turns another drection, but your body leans the other way. That is because your body wants to continue moving in the same direction in which it was traveling. The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied. This can be applied to real life when you are pushing a cart. If the cart is empty, the amount of force you would exert would be small because the mass requires less force. But if the cart was fuller, it would have a geater mass, which woould require more force. Now, mass and weight are oftern mixed up, but mass is the amount of matter in an object while weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object. Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. This happens when you are playing pool and you shoot the white ball at your target, nd when it reaches i,t, it stops. However, the force that the first object exerted on the second object was given to the second objct so that it continued to move a the same velovity as the first object.

Solutions are composed of solutes and solvents. For example, when you mix salt in water, water would be the solvent beccause it is what something is being dissolved in, and salt would be the solute because it is what;s being dissolved in the water. It also helps solutions dissolve when the temperatures are high. When you measure how much of the solute has been dissolved, you measure its concentration. Conductivity is how well a solution conducts electricity or the rate at which heat travels through it.

In a solid, the particles do not move fast enough to break free of the attraction that is pulling them together, so they vibrate in place. In a liquid, the particles move faster and escape some of the attraction, but still move close together. When matter is in the gas state, the particles move fast enough to overcome almost all of the attraction and move around freely. During the plasma state, the particles mov e freely past each other. Gases behave different in certain circumstances. For example, temperature is the measure of how fast particles are moving in an object, so when the tempurature is high, the gas has higher energy levels, moving around more and expanding. When the temperatures are low, the gas particles have less energy and move around less. In adition, if the object containing gas were changed, the gas could be compressed and reshape itself. Lastly, pressure, the amount of force exerted on an obect, can affect gas too. If there is more gas inside a container, the particles hit aginst the container, increasing the pressure, making the container harder.

Radiation- Energy is either reflected or absorbed by matterConvection-the transfer of thermal energy through movement of particles from one location to anotherConduction-the transfer of thermal energy through direct contact between particles of a substance, without moving the particles to a new location


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