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Social Studies

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Capitals & Major CitiesThe capital and largest city is Helsinki.Other major cities are: Espoo (2nd largest city)Tampere (3rd largest city) Vantaa (4th largest city)OuluPori

Finland is in Northern Europe, in a group of countries called Scandinavia. Scandinavia includes Norway, Sweden Finland, and Denmark. Finland is bordered by Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, and across the Gulf of Finland, Estonia to the South. To the North, Finland is bordered by Norway .

Here is the Finnish flag!

Works Cited1. Clark, Geri. Finland. New York: Children's, 2009. Print.2. "FINLAND." Finland Map / Geography of Finland / Map of Finland. Web. 25 May 2014. .3. "Helsinki Times." Pea Soup Warms up Autumn Days. Web. 26 May 2014. .4. Lemke, Donald B. Finland: A Question and Answer Book. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2006. Print.5. "Royalty Free Printable, European Country Maps." Free Maps of European Countries, Printable, Royalty Free Jpg You Can Download. Web. 25 May 2014. .6. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, 2013. Print.

Major LandformsRiversKemijoki River (longest river)Aura RiverInari RiverMountainMount Haltia is the highest point in Finland.LakesFinland has thousands of lakes. The biggest one is called Lake Saimaa.Finland has no deserts. Finland is bordered by no oceans - only the Baltic Sea. Finns depend on the Baltic Sea, and it surrounds a lot of the country.

Finland's Government Finland has two official languages - Finnish and Swedish. . Finland's current Constitution went into effect in 2000. Finland is a democratic republic run by a president, a cabinet, a prime minister, and a parliament. Finland uses euros as its basic currency. Currently, one euro equals $1.36. One major export of Finland is telecommunications equipment. Nokia, the world's largest mobile telephone producer, has its headquarters in Espoo, near Helsinki. Another big export is plywood. Finalnd is one of the world's top producers of plywood. Finland imports a lot of food products, because there isn't much farmable land. It also imports iron, steel, machinery, and petroleum. The Finnish flag is white with a sideways blue cross on it. The white background represents the white snow and winters in Finland. The blue cross represents the many lakes in Finland. The education system in Finland is really nice. Almost all students attend public schools, and the rest go to private schools. As a result, almost all adult Finns can read and write. All elementary school students receive one meal a day, books, and medical and dental care, all free of charge! Finland has what is called a comprehensive school system. Children have to go to elementary schools called basic schools starting at age seven. After 9 years of basic school, students choose either to enter an upper secondary school or a vocational school. Upper secondary schools offer three years of courses and emphasize basic school subjects. It prepares students to go to college. Vocational schools teach students skilled manual work. As a result of all this schooling, Finnish children routinely score really high on tests.

Finland's Culture In Finland, the Evangelical Lutheran Church is the state church of Finland, but Finns have complete religious freedom. Most Finns are Evangelical Lutherans, though. Traditional Finnish food was hearty because the ancient Finns did a lot of hard work and labor. Today, Finns have changed their diet, but still kept some of their old food. Bread with tomatoes and coucumbers are a common snack in Finland. Finns eat a lot of bread and meat, especially pork and beef. Finns also eat a lot of fish. A usual breakfast in Finland has coffee, bread and oatmeal. Lunchtime is the main meal, and has meat or fish, more bread, veggies, and sometimes dessert! Dinner is usually really light, just a snack. All that must give Finns a lot of energy! In winter, Finns play a lot of outdoor sports, such as ice hockey, ice skating, and a lot of skiing! In summer, they swim, boat, and hike. They also play pesapallo, a Finnish form of baseball. One famous person from Finland is Jean Sibelius, a classical composer. He even has a monument in Helsinki! He studied and later taught at the Music Institute of Helsinki. Frans Eemil Sillanpaa won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1939. He wrote books such as Meek Heritage and The Maid Silja.

Interesting Facts1. Finland's national dog is the Finnish spitz!2. Finland's national anthem is called (in English) "Our Land."3. 70% of Finland is covered in thick forests. Much of Finland's wealth comes from these forests, but they also are carefully maintained.4. Finns enjoy taking a special bath called a sauna. In a sauna room, stones are heated up until the room is about 200 degrees farenheit. Then, Finns, lie down or sit on wooden benches and quietly talk until their bodies start to perspire freely. Then they cool down by taking a cold shower or even jumpin into a lake!5. Healthy men between the ages of 18 and 60 must serve between 6 to 12 months in Finland's armend forces. 6. In northern Finland, during winter, temperatures can drop as low as -60 degrees farenheit!7. During the summer in northern Finland, the sun shines 24 hours a day!

In Finland, Thursday is pea soup day. Looks yummy! (Sort of)


When & How Finland Became a Country


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