Factors Influencing Bog Turtle

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Factors Influencing Bog Turtle

Lower New England/North Piedmont Region Bog Turtle SurveyStudy Parameters-101 Study Units-Focus on areas of large turle concentration-Contrast natural and human influence-1000 watersheds analyzed -Varying vegetation and underlying geologyStudy Results-Large impact on survival: Stream connectivity, size of wetland, underlying geology, size o watershed-Lesser impact: landscape variables, road density, human land useStudy Limitations-Consistency of polgon delineations-Consistency of bog turtle presence

Hydrological Factors- Interconnected streams : help turtles escape predation and periods of draught.- Wetlands on carbonaceous rock(limestone, dolostone) : reduce influx of invasive plant species that cause fragmentation of habitats due to overgrowth of canopy.-Groundwater: flow and quality - Larger watersheds : minimize flood pulses which can reduce erosion of organic soils and nest destruction

Factors Influencing Bog Turtle Habitat and Restoration

-Of 27 eggs deposited by six females in captivity: one was partially eaten by female who laid it. 7 were infertile. 1 young was dead upon hatching. another was deformed.Incubation takes from 42-80 days depending on temp. complete emergence takes from 28-104.5 hours (mean 51.2).

SOLUTIONS-Focus restoration efforts on bogs with calcareous bedrock.-Create buffer zones in uplands.-Practice compatible land use.-Create and enforce regulations to protect quality of groundwater flow.-Research historic bog sites as possible future restoration and habitat sites.-Introduce compatible land practices-light grazing by carefully managed livestock to preserve open wetlands in shrinking habitats. - Provide protection from excessive collecting and road mortality of adults.- Research possible reproductive techniques through captive breeding or artificial incubation (less effective).

ANTHROPOGENIC INFUENCE- Destruction/urbanization of wetland habitat.- Increased predation due to crowding.- Upland alteration.- Interferance with natural processes resulting in rapid succession. (Prevention of flooding by beavers/fires)- Lack of suitable habitat due to development- Road kills from fragmentation of habitat.- Death by collisions with boats and incidental capture or entanglement in fishing gear.- Water supply area opened for recreational use.- Illegal pet trade

GENETICS1) No internal mechanism for producing body heat in winter. 2) Hibernate underground with warmer temp.3) Supercooling and Cryoprotectants.4) Freeze Tolerance5) Bimodal Activity Pattern6) Aggression to Own Kind

HABITATS- Physicochemical ranges: pH 5.5-7.4 - Air temp in shade at ground level: 0-29.5°C.- Water temp: 2-28°C- Water color: clear turbid. - Current: slow-fast.- Flow: low-high. - Salinity: always zero.-Circular drainage basins, spring-fed pools, shallow water, substrates of soft mud and rock, vegetation of low grasses and sedges, and heterogeneous with wet and dry areas.-Ephemeral habitat because of plant succession.

ABOUT-Reside in open canopy, calcareous fens fed by fresh water springs, nests in top sedge tussocks.-Diet: terrestrial and wetlands invertebrates. Omnivorous, 80% insects, 20% berries.-Hibernate in subsurface flows, springs, and groundwater seeps to prevent freezing.-Slow reproduction rates: 4-6 eggs max per year.-Isolated populations existor previously existed in NY, MA, NJ, DE, MD, PA, VA, NC, SC, GA, TNCRITICALLY ENDANGERED IN CONNECTICUT

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS1) Global Temperature Change -Change in precipitation patterns -Rising sea levels -Increase invasive plants -Change in hydrologic cycle2)Pollution -Loss of habitat due to chemical runoff -Increase acidity of water due to mining(norheast)

Works CitedAndrew T. Myers and James P. Gibbs (2013) Landscape-level Factors Influencing Bog Turtle Persistence and Distribution in Southeastern New York State. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management: December 2013, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 255-266. Myers, Andrew T. "Landscape and Microhabitat Drivers of Bog Turtle (Glyptemys Muhlenbergii) Occurrence in Southeastern New York State." ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 2011.Conservation and Biology 6.2 (2007): 286-8.http://www.fws.gov/news/blog/index.cfm/2011/6/29/Pennsylvania-Climate-Change-Brings-Uncertain-Future-for-Bog-Turtlet8kftp://ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/WHMI/WEB/pdf/TechnicalLeaflets/bog_turtle_Oct%2023.pdf Hammerson, Geoffrey A. "Reptiles." Connecticut Wildlife: Biodiversity, Natural History, and Conservation. Hanover: U of New England, 2004. N. pag. Print.Ernst, Carl H., Roger W. Barbour, and Jeffrey E. Lovich. "Clemmys Muhlenbergii, Bog Turtle." Turtles of the United States and Canada. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1994. N. pag. Print.Bury, R. Bruce. Review of the Ecology and Conservation of the Bog Turtle, Clemmys Muhlenbergii. Washington: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979. Print.

By: Naomi Fretz andZaric Eisenberg


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