Eye for an Eye

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Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Biology

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Eye for an Eye

By Kelly Clarkson

I ForgiveYou

EYE

Neural Correlates of Retribution and Forgiveness

[Retribution]

[Forgiveness]

"An for an "?

[PrefrontalCortex]

[Insula]

EYE

[Striatum]

Previous neuroimaging studies have used the Ultimatum Game (UG) to investigate human responsesin the face of fair and unfair behaviours as a biological process.Some studies have revealed that the perception of unfairness correlates with the activation of the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, some studies have shown that accepting unfairness is related to a greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) than the insula, and vice versa when rejecting unfairness. Based on this knowledge, Brüne et al. (2013) used a modified method of a two-part paradigm in addition to brainimaging techniques. They observed MRI patterns of brainregions of subjects in a traditional UG game, and then compared them with MRI images obtained when the subjects' roles were in a Dictator Game, where they received the chance to repay the offer to the original proposer. They found that fair and unfair behavioural patterns are related to the activation of the bilateral anterior insula, bilateral DLPFC, right ventral striatum, and retrosplenial cortex, which was in line with previous studies. Besides these, they found evidence that the activation of the ventral striatum, associated with reward perception, is linked to human retribution and that the activation of the right DLPFC, connected with cognition, is related to forgiveness. One particular limitation of the study by Brüne et al. was its small group size of 29 subjects, indicating that their results may not be representative on a large scale. Even so, this study provides the idea that cognition plays a role in suppressing retaliatory behaviour towards unfairness.


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