evolution of cancer

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by JanetAkiz
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Health & Fitness
Subject:
Health
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evolution of cancer

What is it?Cancer is a formation of cancerous cells harmful to the body. They divide uncontrollably and invade some of the most vital parts of the human body, including internal organs. They usually form tumors that breach tissue cells and stop the body from performing its regular duties. Cancer can form at almost any part of the body, including the blood. (What is Cancer?)

Contrary to popular belief, the process of cancer agrees with Darwin's principles of evolution and natural selection. In terms of cancer, certain habitats where it resides can evoke a sort of evolution where they become immune to treatments. "Cancer cell development, like any natural selection (or Darwinian) process, is governed by environmental selection forces and cellular adaptive strategies," the authors from Moffitt Cancer Center wrote. (ScienceDaily)This is the reason why many patiens have the same kind of cancer, they can all receive different treatments. Different mutations that occur in populations of cancer cause it to become resistant to popular medication given. This process is common in the development of carcinogens. (MedicalNewsToday) However, with the advanced medicines produced today, scientists can use their knowledge to manipulate cancers to produce more positive outcomes.

Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women in America. It is caused by cell growth going awry, resulting in the growth of tumors in the breast tissues. (Treatment : The National Breast Cancer Foundation) Parts of these cells can break away from the primary tumor and infiltrate the bloodstream through lymph nodes (cells that aid the immune system.) Since there are various types of cancer, treatments can range from surgery to remove the tumor or chemotherapy. ("Breast Cancer: Origins and Evolution.")

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer, and is especially popular in young boys who are growing. Like most cancers, it occurs from an accident during the replication in the DNA of growing bone cells. (Osteosarcoma 2014) Instead of producing cells that help make the bone stronger, they produce a cell that uncontrollably grows into a tumor. That tumor in return can attempt to start growing a bone of its own. (What Is Osteosarcoma?) This is usually how doctors discover this cancer. The most common treatment is surgery to remove the tumor, or amputation of the appendage containing it.

Brain cancer tends to involve either neurons or glial tissues of the brain. Since the skull cannot expand, tumors that gorw inside the brain usually cause severe damage to the vital parts of the brain. ("Evolution of Brain Geometric Tumor and Stability of Invariants." ) One of the most common mallignant glial tumors is a type of astrocytoma, called Glioblastoma multiforme. It is found in the CNS and is usually tried to be removed, although that is difficult due to its finger-type growth pattern. Chemotherapy and radiation can be used to slow the growth but it is not always succesful. (Oncogenesis-Nature.com)

Genetics is the area of study of how certain characteristics from a parent are passed down to the offspring. The authors of "The Science Book" from National Geographic define a gene as "a segment of DNA within a chromosome that encodes information for the synthesis of a particular protein. All of the information found inside a person's gene is called their genotype." (Genetics 2011) Health conditions that arise from genes are called genetic disorders, which can be hereditary or from a mistake in cell reproduction. "Hereditary diseases, which are also known as genetic disorders can be genetically passed on to new generations of offspring." - Dr. Gudrun Hoffman (Genetics 2011)Cancer comes from an uncontrollable divide of cancerous cells that harm the normal function of the body, but it can also be triggered if the cell already has a gene that codes for that specific disease. Scientists who study genetics are able to diagnose, provide care, and figure out how probable it is for an offspring to receive a particular trait. (What Is Genetics?)

EVOLUTION OF CANCER

Intro to Cancer

Main Sources:Genetics 2011What Is Genetics?Osteosarcoma 2014What is Osteosarcoma?Medical News TodayTreatment: The National Breast Cancer FoundationWhat is Cancer?Evolution of Brain Geometric Tumor and Stability of InvariantsScuenceDaily


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