Evidence Of Evolution

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by AntonetaE123
Last updated 6 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Evolutionary Biology
Grade:
10

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Evidence Of Evolution

THE CHEMICAL AND ANATOMICAL SIMILARITIES OF RELATED LIFE FORMS

THE FOSSIL RECORD OF CHANGE IN EARLIER SPECIES

NATURAL SELECTION AND ARTIFICAL SELECTION

The fossil record remains first and foremost among the databases that document changes in past life on Earth. Fossils provide the dimension of time to the study of life. Some of the most basic observations about fossils and the rock recordwere made long before Darwin formulated his theory of “descent with modification.” The fossil record clearly shows changes in life throughalmost any sequence of sedimentary rock layers. Successive rock layers contain different groups or assemblages of fossil species.

Animals can look similar, but they all have small differences that help them depending on their environment. Biogeography is the study of geological species distribution, which is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. Animals could have gotten separated by plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is the theory that all of Earth's land masses were divided into separate plates. The is also pangea that 200-300 million years ago the landmass that existed when all continents were joined.

-Homology is the process whereby the same embryonic structures have different development fates. The same limb bud, with slightly different expression of the same developmental genes might become a bird's wing, a human's arm, or a horse's foreleg. If a structure becomes greatly reduced in size, it is vestigal. It might asquire a different function. The small forelimbs of the theropod dinosaurs became bird wings. Some snake-like liards have tiny limb bones that do not make a bump on their sides. Analogy is the process by which different tissues serve the same role, convergence where function dictates form.-The Family Tree is just one of many examples, used to compare relatedness between species. Just as humans identify where their traits come from (parents, grand-parents, etc), genes can do the same. Similar genes can support evolution.-In embryology, the developing fetus is studied, and similarities with other organisms are observed. For example, annelids and mollusks are very dissimilar as adults. If, however, the embryo of a ragworm and a whelk are studied, one sees that for much of their development they are remarkably similar. Even the larvae if these two species are very much alike. This suggests that they both belong to a common ancestor. There are some similarities with the more conserved regions, but embryonic development is subjected to evolutionary pressures as much as other areas of the life cycle.

THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF RELATED SPECIES

Natural selection is a gradual process where heritable biological traits become more or less common in a population. The change in traits is called an adaption and the driving force behind the adaptions in survival of the fittest. Fitnes is the ability to survive and reproduce. The most suitable animals to their environment will survive, so animals will add new and get rid of unuseful traits in order to be more fit. Artificial selection, also known as selective breeding, is when a human chooses certain animals to breed based on their traits. Normally the best traits would be picked, creating a more fit species.


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