Evidence of Evolution

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by BrandonPage
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Evolutionary Biology

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Evidence of Evolution

Evidence of Evolution

Fossil RecordThe fossil record gives scientists a view of the transition from one species into another. It also provides a time perspective for understanding the evolution of life on Earth. Scientist can tell if one fossil is older than another, relating to the time period of when certain species were around and how it has evolved. Fossils are proof of evolution because it shows the speicies' changes in order to survive in it's environment.

Homologous Structures share a common ancestor but use the structure for a different purpose. For example, the forelimbs of humans and bats are homologous structures, they are used differently but both share a common ancestor. Analogous Structures are structures of different species that have similar or corresponding function but are not from the same evolutionary origin (common ancestor). An examples is the wings of insects and bird used for flying. Vestigial structures are organs or parts which are greatly reduced from the original ancestral form and are no longer functional or in need to survive. An example would be the human appendix or the pelvic bone of a snake, or the wings of a flightless bird.


Similarities of genes and chromosomes are used to compare relatedness between species in order support and give evidence for evolution. The gene pool shows the stocks of genes in an interbreeding population with phenotypes and genotypes. Organisms who have genes and chromosomes that are better equipped with the environment will be able to adapt and last longer. The genes will show compared to the ones who are not better fit for the environment. This tells that the organisms will change but they are still in their family tree.



Biogeography is the branch of biology that deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. It also shows how Earth evolved over time which caused an effect on organisms. Different types of species get shifted and misplaces when the Earth shifts and they evolve into the new environments. This is why some animals are only found in particular regions and others are found elsewhere. Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth’s outer shell is divided into several plates that move over the mantle, the rocker inner layer above the core. The plates and continents move over time, changing the conditions of the environment as well. Pangea was a supercontinents that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It was formed 300 million years ago and began to break apart after 100 million years due to the shift in the Earth’s plates. Continents began to form, creating new environment for new species and a huge segregation of species as they lived on their own continent.

Cladistics is a methods of classification of animals and plants according to the proportion of measurable characteristics that they have in common. The higher the proportion of characteristics that two organisms share, the more recently they diverged from a common ancestor.Phylogeny is the branch of biology that deals with phylogenesis- the evolutionary development and diversification of a species or group of organismsClade is a group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor, according to the principles of cladistics.

Embryos, an unborn animal or human young, look very similar and it is often difficult to tell them apart. Multiple traits of one type of animal appear in the embryo of another type of animal. This shows that animals are similar and that they develop similarly have common ancestors and that they started out the same.

Natural Selection


Natural selection is the process when organisms that are better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. If the organism was better suited for it’s environment, then more offspring could occur and it results in evolution if the process continues over the period of years as well as the environmental changes occurring. Darwin concluded that birds he observed had beaks but each of them were different in order to obtain certain foods that were available in the areas around them. Artificial selection is the process by which humans breed other animals and plants for particular traits. For example, the meat we eat are the result of the careful selective breeding of cows, pigs, sheep, and chickens.

Vestigial Structures


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