Evidence of Evolution

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by michaelnolff
Last updated 4 years ago

Evolutionary Biology

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Evidence of Evolution


FOSSIL RECORDThe fossil record gives a time perspective of understanding the evolution of life on Earth. It clearly shows life is old and changes over time. Fossils were the leftovers of ancient life and different layers of rock formed over time in the history of the Earth. The age of the fossil can be shown by relative dating, which determines the relative order of past events. The amount of years the fossil has existed is shown by numerical dating, which also shows the age of the fossils

ANATOMICAL STRUCTURESAnatomical evidence in evolution is shown by vestigal structures and homologous structures. Vestigal structures are physical componets that are useless or do not do the same function as they once did. Structures may retain lesser functions, or develop minor new ones, but either way they will be in a degenerated state. In birds, like penguins, the wings are considered vestigal because they are no longer used for flying. Homologous structures are physical parts that have a similar ingredient throughout many animals, even though they come in different shapes and sizes. Almost all vertebrates share homologous bone structures. Among amphibians, reptiles, and mammals (including humans) the front limbs always contain a humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. While these structures will come in radically different shapes and sizes between all kinds of animals, they are still there.

Genetics is the study of heridy and variation in living organisms. Each has a gene pool, which shows the stock of genes in an interbreeding population with phenotypes and genotypes. Organisms who have genes and chromosomes that are better equipped for the environment will show much more instead of the ones that do not with their environment. This tells that the organisms will change, but they are still in their family tree



The branch of biology and medicine concerned with the study of embryos and their development is embryology. Embryos of many animals are similar and they are difficult to see which is different. Embryos are actually considered to be more highly organized than adult forms.




Biogeography is the branch of biology that deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. It also shows how the Earth evolves over time and how it affected organisms. Species get moved around when the Earth shifts and then it evolves to its new environment. Thats why some animals are only found in certain places and others are not. Plate tectonics is the theory explaining the structure of the earth's crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle. The plates move and the continents change over time. This also changes the conditions of the envirnonment. If you were to place together where specific animals belong you will see a new continent has been created. Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It formed approximately 300 million years ago and then began to break apart after about 100 million years. This also proves that continents were spreading over time and that organisms were shifted around as well.

Phylogenetics: is the branch of life science concerned with the analysis of molecular sequencing data to study evolutionary relationships among groups of organismsCladistics: the classification of animals and plants according to the proportion of measurable characteristics that they have in commonPhylogeny: the branch of biology that deals with phylogenesisClade:a group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor, according to the principles of cladistics

Natural Selection is when species adapt to their surroundings in order to survive, also known as "survival of the fittest". When environments change, so does the species. Natural Selection is for the fittest to survive and pass down traits to other offspring. Each bird on the Galapagos had beaks, but they were different from each other and their surroundings. When a condition changes, a species must adapt to it in order to live. Artificial Selection is the process by which humans breed other animals and plants for particular traits. Darwin did this after the Galapagos Islands to compare the birds and to see if his hypothesis was indeed correct

Natural Selection

Homologous Structures

Numerical & Relative Dating


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