Evidence in Evolution

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by MaddyClare
Last updated 4 years ago

Evolutionary Biology

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Evidence in Evolution


Fossil Record

Fossil records show evolution by showing the changes in a species over time. Whales have a pelvic bone that they don't use anymore. Yet, their ancestors needed legs to walk on land. Eventually, the legs disappeared, but they pelvic bone they connected to is still there.

Embryonic development provides evidence of evolution. The embryos of many species look extremly similar at first, but they eventually start to look different.

Chemical and Anatomical Similarities

Homologus structures are structures that are similar to others in separrate species. They are displayed through common ancestors. Analogous structures are in different species and show that different organisms have evolved to have similar characteristics. Vestigial structures are organs or bones in the body that are no longer needed or used. For example humans no longer necessarily need their appendix.

Phylogenetic trees are genetic trees that go back and show which organisms are closely related to which. Cladistics is when organisms are grouped together based on if they have similar unique charateristics that come from the groups last common ancestor.

Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the later Paleozoic and early Mesozoic ears. It was formed about 300 million years ago but began to break apart after around 100 million years. That is why, if you find a fossil on the east coast of South America and one one the west coast of South Africa they could be the same, or extremly similar. It is also why you can find similar species living in completly different area of the world. Pangea seperated due to plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is the theory that Earths outer shell is divided into many plates that slide over the mantle, changing earth around. Hense Pangea sperating.

Geographic distrubution of related species

Natural selection is the theory that evolutionary change comes through thte productin of variation in ceach generation and differential survival of individuals with different combinations of the variable characters. Which could be like survival of the fittest. A situtation where survival of the fittest would be used is when deer are running from a cheetah. The one who is the slowest will get caught and the faster ones will survive. Artificial selection is when humans breed other animals and plants to have specific traits. A situation where this could be used is dog breeding.

Natural and Artificial selection


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