Estrogen Signal Transduction Pathway #2

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by emmacampisi
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Cell Biology

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Estrogen Signal Transduction Pathway #2

1. Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Inside the cell, estrogens are able to bind to proteins that interact directly with DNA and gene transcription.

3. Protein Phosphorylation is a common means of information transfer. Many second messangers elicit responses by activating protein kinases. These enzymes transfer phosphoryl groups from ATP to specific serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues in proteins.

2. Second messangers relay information from the receptor ligand complex. Changes in concentration (second messangers) consitue the next molecular information cicuit. These messengers include cyclic AMP/GMP, calcium ion, imositol, etc.

4. After the signal is recieved, it is then terminated. Protein phosphates are one mechanism of a signaling process. A signaling process has been initiated and the information has been transduced to affect other cellular processes, the signaling processes must be terminated.

Estrogens play key roles in the development and maintance of normal reproductive function. In addition, in both men and women, they exert many biological effects (stimulating cells which enhance functions )in the CV, musculoskeletal, immune, and CNS Receptor- Ligand Pair: 1. Receptor alpha - estrogen (17beta estradiol/E2)--> found in the cells of the endometrium, ovaries, and hypothalamus 2. Receptor beta - estrogen (17beta estradiol/E2) --> found in the cells of the ovaries, kideny, brain, bone, heart, lungs, intestines, and prostate

2 signaling pathways: Since Estrogen is a steroidal hormone, it can pass through the phospholipid membranes of the cells, and receptors do not need to be membrane bound to bind with Estrogen1. nuclear initiated steroid signaling (genomic)- estrogen binds to either ERalpha or ERbeta (in the cytosol)- it then translocates to the nucleus and binds to DNA, forming a DNA/receptor complex2. membrane initiated steroid signaling (nongenomic)

E2 regulates human physiology via diffusion through the plasma membrane of target cells and signaling through intra-cellular hormone-specific estrogen receptors (ERs).

Without such termination, cells lose their responsiveness to new signals

Estrogen Signal Transduction Pathway By Emma Campisi


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