Eskimos: Canada's First Northern People

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Eskimos: Canada's First Northern People

Eskimos are what people used to call the people that lived in the arctic in the past.The native meaning for Eskimo is "eaters of raw meat". Now they call the people that live in the arctic Inuits. The Native meaning for Inuit is" the people" and the native meaning for Inuk ( 1 inuit ) is "the person"For more information click here

The Eskimos hunt most of their food. Animals that live in the arctic were their main food supply. They couldn't depend on plants as their food supply because of the short summers. The Eskimos were very skilled hunters and hunted all year around. Different animals were hunted during hunted during different seasons . The Eskimos usually hunted sea animals during the winter. Walrus' were hunted for their tusks, ivory and meat. The meat was used mostly for the dogs . Beluga whales were hunted for their skin and food. Many land animals like arctic hare, polar bear, arctic birds and arctic fox were also hunted. Fishing was also very important. For more information on food click here

The Eskimos environment was very cold. They had long cold winters and short cool summers. In the winter it was very cold and ice formed on the ocean and there was a lot of snow. Winters were long so they lived in a snowy enviroment for most of the year. In the winter not many things could grow. In the far north there was some periods of complete darkness. For more information on the eskimos natural enviroment click here

The shelters in the summer and the winter were different. In the summer they lived in cone shaped tents called teepees. The teepees were made from driftwood poles covered in animal hides( mostly seal skin and caribou skins). There was a ring of large rocks surrounding the teepee and holding down the animal skin roof. In the winter they lived in igloos. An igloo was a dome shaped shelter made from ice blocks cut out from the snow. The Eskimos used soft snow to fill in the holes and for insulation. Large igloos were about 4 meters in diameter and 3 meters in height . People made beds from carved ice blocks covered in animal hides. When built this was the igloo was quite warm.for more information click here

The clothing that the Eskimos wore were mainly made from skins and furs. The Eskimos wore many layers due to the cold weather. Caribou skins were mainly used because they provided insulation. They also made clothing out of seal and dog skin. Sometimes they even used animal intestines because it was water resistant. They wore coats called parkas and long bulky pants.They also wore mittens, goggles, shirts, hats and some other items. The men and woman wore similar clothing.For more information on eskimo clothing click here

There was no real leader or chief that rules everyone. Instead Eskimos lived in small groups called bands. In the summer they lived in small bands and in the winter they lived in larger bands. In the summer they lived in bands of 5-6 people and in the winter they lived with about 6 other bands. All of the members of a band helped each other, shared food and shared wealth.for more information click here

Summer band

Winter band

Transportation was different depending on the season. In the winter they got around on dog sleds, snow shoes or they walked. In the summer they travelled by kayaks, umiak, which is like a large open rowboat or they walked. Eskimos sometimes used crampon on the bottom of their feet to get grip to travel on ice. A crampon is a spiked attachment on the bottom of a boot with spikes to get grip on the ice.for more information click here

Art played a important role in their culture. A couple examples of their art are carvings masks and inukshucks. Carvings were made from stone, bone and ivory. Most carvings were of animals, people and spirits. Masks were made from driftwood or whalebone. Masks were worn durring ceremonial dances. Inukshucks was art made from different sized rocks balanced on top of each other to make different peices of art.For more information click here

First Peoples of"The Arctic People - Groups in This Region." The Arctic People - Groups in This Region. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2013Eskimo peoples "The Arctic People - Groups in This Region." The Arctic People - Groups in This Region. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2013I found all of my images on google images"Google Images." Google Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2013.



Work cited

Aboriginal Group in that Region



Social Structure


Natural Environment

By: Meghan Watson

Eskimos: Canada's First Northern People


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