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Enzymes can be regulated by inhibitors An allosteric enzyme is regulated by changes inits shape Some metabolic pathways can be controlled byfeedback inhibition Enzymes are affected by their environment

Reversible inhibition:• A competitive inhibitor binds at the activesite but no reaction occurs. It competes with the natural substrate.

Reversible inhibition:• A noncompetitive inhibitor binds at a site distinct from the active site, causing change in enzyme shape and function. It prevents substrate binding or slows the reaction rate.


Enzyme-catalyzed reactions operate in metabolic pathways.• The product of one reaction is a substrate for the next reaction.• Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme.Cell have hundreds of enzymes that participate in interconnecting metabolic pathways, forming a metabolic system.

Irreversible inhibition:• Inhibitor covalently binds to a side chain inthe active site.• The enzyme is permanently inactivated. • Some insecticides act in this way.

Phosphorylation by protein kinases is an important regulatory mechanism.Phosphorylation can change a hydrophobic region to hydrophilic. The enzyme twists and exposes the active site.Protein phosphatases reverse the process by removing phosphate groups.



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