Endocrine System

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by HECK02
Last updated 7 years ago

Human Anatomy

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Endocrine System

The pineal gland is located in the brain.

Hypergonadismis a condition characterized by unusually high levels of reproductive hormones. Hypergonadism can be cased by genetic factors, autoimmune disease, or tumors. Treatment options can vary depending on the patient, but usally includes hormonal therapy or surgical intervention. Diagnoses for hypergonadism include checking estrogen level (women), FSH level and LH level, and testosterone level (men.)

Endocrine System

Cushing's Syndrome occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of cortisol (hormone) for a long period of time. The most common cause of Cushing's Syndrome is the use of oral corticosteroid medication. Treatments include surgery, reducing corticosteroid use, medication, and radiation therapy.Cushing's syndrome is diagnosed with tests such as the 24-hour urinary free cortisol level test, the CRH stimulation test, CT scan, and MRI.

The pineal gland is involved in several functions including: secreting the hormone, melatonin, regulating endocrine functions,conversion of nervous system signals to endocrine signals, causing feelings of sleepiness, and influencing sexual development. Melatonin's main job in the body is to regulate night/day cycles or sleep-wake cycles. The gonads, testes in males and ovaries in females, are responsible for the production of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Testosterone regulates the development and function of the primary sex organs and secondary male characteristics in males. Estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics in females and the preparation of the body for childbirth.


(Top) Females: Vagina(Bottom) Males: Penis

Pineal & Gonads

Insomniais a sleep disorder characterized by difficult falling asleep or staying asleep. Deficiency in melatonin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, is associated with insomnia. Common causes of insomnia include: stress, anxiety, depression, changes in your enviornment, and aging. A questionnaire or diary of your sleeping patterns may need to be completed for diagnoses. Treatments for insomnia include behavior therapy, prescription medicenes, and over-the-counter sleep aides.

Hypogonadism occurs when the body's sex glands produce little or no hormones. The cause of hypogonadism can either be primary or central. In primary hypogonadism, the ovaries or testes themselves do not function properly. The most common genetic disorders that cause primary hypogonadism are Turner syndrome (iwomen) and Klinefelter syndrome (men). In central hypogonadism, the centers in the brain that control the gonads do not function properly. The causes of central hypogonadism include: infections, genetic problems, bleeding, etc. Hormone based medicenes may be prescribed for treatment. Tests that diagnose hypogonadism include estrogen level (women), FSH level and LH level, and testosterone level (men.)


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