Egyptian Old Kingdom

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by andreag196
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Ancient History
Grade:
10

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Egyptian Old Kingdom

Egyptian Old Kingdom

The Egyptian government revolved around one very important figure and this was the Pharaoh. In this time the pharoah was considered to be a god which gave him ultimate power to rule as he pleased. Because religion was very interwined in the society it would play a big role in their laws.so when it came to broken laws the punisment would fit the crime and if you were to commit a crime you would have brought shame to your family. When it came to taxes the citizens would pay for resources (just as long as they pledged their loyalty to the king). Under the king there were more officials such as the vizor, the preists, and the scribes.

In the ancient Egyptian culture religion played a big part in the Eygyptians life. Religion was included in every aspect of their society, civil law, art, astronomy, medicine geography and agriculture. The Egyptians were a polytheistic society and their beliefs formed through the observation of their enviornment, there was a god for every natural resource. Some of the gods included Ra the most important god to the egyptians because he was the god of the sun, Amun king of the gods, Isis the goddes of protection and many more. The Egyptians did not question their belifs and due to the strong influence of religion the pharaohs and the priests were very powerful.

In the time of the Old Egyptian kingdom this was the most dynamic time for their art. Artists learned how to share their worldviews. They learned how to scultp and draw different hyroglphrics and built pyramids that have managed to stay preserved and attract archeologist from all around the world. Egyptians perfected the art of carving intricate relief decoration and through their keen observations of the natural world archeologist were able to conqure that they used art to preserve life in the next world. Howerver, one of the biggest influences on their art was their religion.

As one can see on the pyramid the classes are organized from highest to lowest At the top of the pyramid is the pharaoh, considering they were considerd a god the people would entrust them with many responsibilities such as food, protection, and collecting taxes. Howevwer, because the pharoah had many responsibilities he had to have some kind of help which is where the vizers came in. The vizers made sure that taxes were collected and to help them keep record of everything were their scribes (somewhat like a secretary of the ancient Egyptian times). All the jobs that helped the pharoah with his duties required high skill level, what set these individuals apart from others is that they could read and write which was important if your were going to keep record. The next on the pyramid are the priests, the preists were responsible for pleasing the gods, the usually became wealthy off of the peoples offerings to the gods all Egyptians gave an offering to the gods from the pharoahs to the farmers. Next in the pyramid were soldiers, like any other culture soldiers were used to fight in wars or quelled domestic uprosings. During a period of piece the would over see ll the constuction work with the slaves and the farmers. Craftsmen, physicians and skilled workers were considered middle class, craftsmen would make jewlery, pottery, papyrus, and tools. At the bottom of the pyramid are the slaves and the farmers. Slaves were forced to build the pyramids and were usually captured prisinors from the war

When it came to agriculture the ancient egyptians excelled in this ares. Due to the Nile's flooding the flooding would insert minerals in the soild for crops to grow. Farmers paid taxes with grain that way if there was famine the pharoah had food to feed his subjects. The Egyptians diet consisted of vegitables such as onions, lettuce, garlic, cucumbers. peas, and leeks. In the summer they grew more fruit like Figs, dates, pomegranates and grapes. Usually the grapes were used to make their wine. When it came to animals the Egyptians believed that balance between animals and humans was essential. Cattle was the most important livestock, in addition to cattle they had goats, sheeps, and pigs, they also had pigeons, ducks and geese for poultry. Because they didn't have sugar back then egyptians used honey to sweeten their bread which is why bee's were substancial to them.

While the ancient Egyptians did have many resources they did trade with other countries such as Afganastan, Africa, Lebanon and many more but, the question is what did they trade? The other countries would usually trade cedar wood (Lebanon), lapis lazuli (Afganastan), and ebony and ivory (Africa) in return for gold, papyrus, linen, grain, and artifacts (sometimes stolen from Pharaohs' tomb). They usual route they took was through the Nile on a boat or through the desert. At the time ancient Egyptians were the best traders.

The most important thing that set the ancient Egyptians apart from other culutres was their architecture. The Egyptians mananged to build different pieces of art such as statues of their beloved gods, royal headreses for their deseaced pharoah's, and of course the pyramids. They somehow to managed to build these magnificent pyramids without any modern machinary. Each of the buildings were decorated with paintings, carvings, and three dimensional statues. Religion played a big role in the culture so most of their statues and hyrogliphrics on and inside the pyramids were dedicated to the gods.


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