Egypt In The Nile River Valley

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by Laurarem
Last updated 8 years ago

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Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Ancient History
Grade:
11

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Egypt In The Nile River Valley

The Nile provided water for drinking and for watering crops. (this is picture # 8)

Egypt in the Nile River Valley

The inhabitants of the Nile River Valley Civilization depended heavily on farming. Close proximity to the Nile allowed easy access to water needed for crops. Seasonal flooding fertilized the land for the next year's crops. Agriculture was essential for survival, growth, and economic success. (this is from source #8)

The captial of ancient Egypt was Memphis. Its civilization lay on the bank of the Nile river. The river provided Eygpt with many "gifts" - civilization depended on the Nile for, agriculture, communication, and its irrgation channels. Eygptians depended heavily on farming, so having easy access to water was crucial for a successful economy. Most population lived along the banks or in the Nile Delta. As represented in the picture to the left, the nile was divided into "upper eygpt" (the southern delta) and "lower eygpt" (the northern delta). Eventually rulers even adopted new crowns to signify which they ruled.The most important cities were located upstream (upper eygpt). The Nile also flowed South to North. Next to having the river, eygpt also had papyrus reeds that grew in marshy areas. With these reeds, they were able to make paper, sails, and ropes. The river also was used for fishing, and attracted a good amount of birds. Clay could be made as well form the mud. Overall because of the many "gifts of the Nile" eygpt was more self-sufficent than Mesopotamia. (source 6)

Egyptian women, were below men in terms of power. Their main roles were managing the household and educating children. They did however have certain rights. Some of which are that they could recieve alimony, own property, divorce their husbands, and could run bussinesses (upper class women). Marriages in ancient Eygpt were also decided through the couples choices rather than through religious ceremonies. Below is a picture of a statue of Queen Hatshepsuet, an Eygptian queen who became ruler at her own right, and held power longer than any other woman in Eygpt. (Picture #10).

-----------King-----------The king had a special status along with his female companion. He was considered to be ruler of the land and also a god. To hold his status, he had to keep ma'at, or a divinley authorized universe.------Ruling Class------Related or of high importance of the King. --------Craftsman-------Craftsman made weapons and tools for the people and worked on the decorations for tombs.---------Farmers---------Most people of the Nile tribes were farmers that can only be vaguely distinguished by their tombs. -Marginalized Groups-Little is known about the general people, although we know that they didn't live in organized structures and they acted as the military.---------Slaves---------Servants were often used and sold.The Pyramids were built by servants who were paid in beer.(This picture is from source # 8)

Hieroglyphics were picture symbols that stood for words. We can decode Hieroglyphics because of the rosetta stone. Hieroglyphics would be writen on papyrus paper, created by using the fiber of papyrus reeds. As depicted in the photograph to the right, writing was also engraved on temples. (source #5)

This is a photo from the Egyptian book of the dead. The book of the dead is the primary religious text which gives instructions on how to go about ones journey to afterlife. Egypt religion had many gods, Ra the sun god being the chief deity. Egyptian religion was highly concerned with the idea of life after death. This concern, lead to mumification, and building pyramids and large tombs. The process of contructing pyramids required lots of labor, and they were assisted by the use of pulleys, levers, and rollers. In these pyramids they put things the deseaced would need in the afterlife so they would have it on their journey. In this picture, Hanefar a royal scribe stands before people from his houehold prior to being placed in a tomb. The jackle-hed called Anubis is a god who "weighs" the spirit and leads it to the afterllife. It is also important to note that the Eygptians were polythestic, meaning they believed in many gods. (The picture pertaining to this is # 2)

Compared to Mesopotamia, Egypt had less defined social divisons however, as shown in the diagram below social classes still emerged. The highest class was made up of the phorah, also known as the king. The next class was preists and nobles, then came traders, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes, and afterwards farmers and herders, then lastly were the unskiled workers/ slaves. The peasants in Eygpt lived in rural areas, and practiced agriculture. While slavery did exist it wasn't very prominant. Slaves could be POW'S (prisoners of war), condemned criminals, and people who didn't pay their debts. There was apossibilty of being freed if you were to be a slave, and they were treated in a humane fashion. (The picture below is #3)

The ancient egyptians, are also responisble for the worlds most accurate calendar. The picture to the left is their calendar on papyrus paper. (source #4)

(Source 1)


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