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Ozone Hole

Jeffrey Le Leticia Baustista

Ecosystem: consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact.

Concept 54.1: Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cyclingConcept 54.2: Physical and chemical factors limit primary production in ecosystemsConcept 54.3: Energy transfer between trophic levels is usually less than 20% efficientConcept 54.4: Biological and geochemical processes move nutrients between organic and inorganic parts of the ecosystemConcept 54.5: The human population is disrupting chemical cycles throughout the biosphere

Carbon Cycle

Water Cycle

Phosphorus Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

Ecosystem : a community and its physical environment, including biotic and abiotic components. All organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; a community and it's physical environment. P1198Heterotrophs : an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproduct. P 1199Primary producers : an autotroph, which collectively make up the trophic level of an ecosystem that ultimately supports all other levels in the ecosystem; usually a photosynthetic organism which use light energy to make sugars and other organic compounds. P1199Primary consumers : consumers that eat producers. Ex: herbavors.Secondary consumers : a member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat herbivores. p1199Tertiary consumers : a member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat other carnivores. p1199Detritivores / Decomposers : A consumer that derives it's energy from nonliving organic material.Detritus : dead organic material. p1199Primary production : amount of light energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) during a given time period in an ecosystem; the photosynthetic output of an ecosystem's autotrophs. p1200Gross primary production (GPP) : the total primary production of an ecosystem. The amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time. Not all is stored as organic material because plants use some to fuel their own chemical respiration. p1200Net Primary Production (NPP) : it represents the storage of chemical energy that is available to consumers in the ecosystem. It is equal to the gross primary production (GPP) of an ecosystem minus the energy used by the producers for respiration (R); [NPP=GPP-R]. p1200Biomass : dry weight of organic matter comprising a small group of organisms in a particular habitat. p1201Standing crop : the total biomass of photosynthetic autotrophs present at a given time. p1201Limiting nutrient : the nutrient that must be added for production to increase; often is nitrogen or phosphorus. p1203Eutrophication : the shift in composition of phytoplankton communities in lakes from dominations by green algae and diatoms to blooms of cyanobacteria. p1204Secondary production : amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period. p1205Production efficiency : fraction of food energy that is not used for respiration. p1206Trophic efficiency : the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next.p1206Pyramid of production : is a pyramid in which the trophic levels are staked in blocks, with primary producers forming the foundation of the pyramid. It shows the multiplicative loss of energy caused by trophic efficiency. p1206Biomass pyramid : Each tier represents the standing crop in a trophic level. p1206Turnover time : standing crop biomass compared to production; thus turnover time equals the standing crop biomass (mg/m2) divided by production (mg/m2/day). P1207Pyramid of numbers : the size of each block is proportional to the number of individual organisms present in each trophic level. p1207Green world hypothesis : states that herbivores consume relatively little plant biomass because they are held in check by a variety of factors including predators, parasites and disease. p1208Biogeochemical cycles : any of the various nutrient circuits, which involve both biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem. Chemical elements are passed between abiotic and biotic components of the ecosystem through the biogeochemical cycle. p1209Nitrogen fixation : the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants. Nitrogen can enter the ecosystem when certain prokaryotes convert N2 to minerals that can be used to synthesize nitrogenous organic compounds like amino acids. p1210Nitrification : An activity that oxidizes ammonium to nitrite and then to nitrate by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants). p1211Denitrification : The conversion of nitrates back into nitrogen . p1211Ammonification : the process in which the decomposition of organic nitrogen back to ammonium; carried out by bacterial and fungal decomposers. p1211Long-term ecological research (LTER) : research conducted to follow dynamics of natural ecosystems over relatively long time periods. p1213Critical load : the amount of added nitrogen that can be absorbed by plants without damaging ecosystem integrity. p1216Cultural eutrophication : human intrusion that has disrupted freshwater ecosystems. Eutrophication that occurs as a result of sewage, factory wastes, and runoff of animal wastes and fertilizers from agricultural lands. p1216Acid precipitation : rain, snow, or fog that has a pH less than 5.6. p1216Biological magnification : a trophic process in which retained substances (poisons) become more concentrated with each level in the food chain. p1217Greenhouse effect : the warming of planet Earth due to the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases, which reflect infrared radiation back toward Earth. p1219Actual Evapotranspiration : The amount of water annually transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape, usually measured in millimeters.Law of Conservation of Mass : mass cannot be created/destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space, and be changed into different types of particles.


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