Digestive System

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by itzel12321
Last updated 6 years ago

Human Anatomy

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Digestive System

Digestive System

Symptoms: Heart Burn, Regurgitation, and Nausea.How can it be diagnosed?Can be diagnosed by a doctor based on the symptoms. If GERD is suspected then there is tests like are esophageal pH monitoring, endoscopy, and manometry to confirm if the patient suffers of GERD or not.Treatment:Avoiding foods and beverages that can weaken the LES like chocolate, peppermint, fatty foods, coffee, and alcoholic beverages. Foods and beverages that can irritate a damaged esophageal lining, such as citrus fruits and juices, tomato products, and pepper, should also be avoided. Decrease food portions and eat 2 to 3 hours before bedtime. No smoking. Use antacids to help neutralize acid in the esophagus and stomach and stop heartburn. Take H2 blockers or get a Fundoplication.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

What is it: Severe “heartburn” in laymen’s language. Weakness of the valve between the esophagus and stomach may allow stomach acid to reflux (regurgitate, backup) into the esophagus and irritate and inflame the lining. This results in chest pain which can mimic that of angina (pain of cardiac ischemia or an MI).How it interferes with feedback mechanism? Gastroesophageal RefluxGastrin: a hormone that stimulates the production of gastric acid in the stomachOne of the important factors under hormonal control is the stomach acid environment. During the gastric phase, the hormone gastrin is secreted by G cells in the stomach in response to the presence of proteins. Gastrin stimulates the release of stomach acid, or hydrochloric acid (HCl), which aids in the digestion of the majority of proteins. However, when the stomach is emptied, the acidic environment need not be maintained and a hormone called somatostatin stops the release of hydrochloric acid. This is controlled by a negative feedback mechanism.

Symptoms:Diverticulitis may cause alternating diarrhea and constipation,painful cramps or tenderness in the lower abdomen,chills or fever. While Diverticulosis does not cause any troublesome symptoms.How can it be diagnosed?Through the use of digital rectal exam, X-rays, CT scanning, ultrasound testing, a sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and blood tests.Treatment:High fiver diet, liquid diet, antibiotics given in a vein, keep the stomach empty by sucking out the contents through a tube passed up the nose and down the throat into the stomach (nasogastric or NG tube), or surgery.

What is it: Small pouches may form along the walls of the large intestine called diverticuli which if symptomatic, causing discomfort to the patient, is called diverticulosis. These abnormal outpocketings may collect and not be able to empty fecal material which can lead to inflammation, diverticulitis.How it interferes with feedback mechanism?

What is it:“orange-yellow” in Greek. A degenerative disease of the liver that often develops in chronic alcoholics, but can have other causes. The name refers to the gross appearance of the organ. How it interferes with feedback mechanism?

Symptoms:Fatigue,Bleeding easilyBruising easily,Itchy skin,Yellow discoloration in the skin and eyes (jaundice),Fluid accumulation in your abdomen (ascites),Loss of appetite,Nausea,Swelling in your legs,Weight lossConfusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy),Spider-like blood vessels on your skin.How can it be diagnosed?Physical exam, blood test, biopsy, during a surgery, computerized tomography, ultrasound, radioisotope liver/spleen scan. Treatment:Liver transplantation, stop the consumption of alchohol, steroids, antiviral drugs, reduction of salt in meals, and diuretics.




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