Curricula Theorists

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Curricula Theorists

REFERENCESKappa Delta Pi. (n.d.). Werrett Charters. [photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.kdp.org/aboutkdp/laureates/werrettcharters.php Ornstein, A. C. & Hunkins, F. P. (2009). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (6th edition). Boston: Perason. pp. 58-59.Richmond, J. (n.d.). John Franklin Bobbitt. [photograph]. Retrieved from http://keithbobbitt.com/John%20Franklin%20Bobbitt/john_franklin_bobbitt.html Unknown. (n.d.). Portrait of William Heard Kilpatrick. [photograph]. Retrieved from http://historicalphotos.pressible.org/rebecca/portrait-of-william-heard-kilpatrick-teachers-college-faculty-na-1900-1950 Unknown. (n.d.). Harold Rugg [photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.educationalresearches.com/harold-rugg/Unknown. (n.d.). Hollis Caswell [photograph]. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/tsftacwebsite/home/characters/hollis-caswell Unknown. (n.d.). John Goodlad [photograph]. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/content/m14103/latest/ Unknown. (n.d.). Ralph W. Tyler [photograph]. Retrieved from https://ehe.osu.edu/teaching-and-learning/about/tradition/

(1902 – 1989) Major Work : Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction Tyler deemed curriculum to be a science, placing an emphasis on organized, logical, sequential, and rational curriculum. Tyler emphasized vertical and horizontal alignment of curriculum, believing that subject matter should be organized in terms of knowledge skills and values. He asked four questions concerning the goals of the school, the experiences needed to reach these goals, how the experiences are organized, and the method used to evaluate their success. Tyler also believed curriculum should be a national process and should be related to instruction.

(1901–1989) Major Work: Curriculum Development According to Caswell, curriculum is a method by which teachers correlate activities around the needs and interests of students. These activities aid in implementing instruction. He also believed that curriculum should be centered around social functions. Caswell asked seven questions: What is the curriculum? Why is there a need for revision? What is the function of subject matter? How does one organize curriculum? How does one select subject matter? And How does one measure the outcomes of instruction?

(1876 – 1956) Major Works: The Curriculum and How to Make a Curriculum. Bobbitt’s book was the first to address curriculum issues. He believed that curriculum scientific and was based on the scientific method. He believed that the role of education was important because it prepared students for life as an adult, and it should be based on the needs of students. He also argued for cost effective education and believed that should show differentiation into a variety of programs; students should be directed to academic and preparatory programs or vocational and terminal programs based on their individual abilities.

(1875-1952) Major Work: Curriculum Construction Charters was a behavioralist and viewed education as a science. He believed that education consisted of a set of goals that students needed to reach. Charters believed that listing objectives based on student needs and creating activities that corresponded with these objectives were necessary. Likewise, he validated these objectives through the use of evaluations. Charters can be credited for laying the foundation for curriculum evaluation.

(1920 – Present) Major Work: A Placed Called School Goodlad believed that the starting point of curriculum is philosophy. Focusing on active learning, Goodlad believed that curriculum should be structured around student and society needs and could serve social, civic, or moral purposes. He saw a constant need for school improvement and saw a need to reduce student conformity. He encouraged active learning and critical thinking and strove for the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and development. He placed an emphasis on critical thinking and active learning.

JOHN GOODLAD

FRANKLIN BOBBITT

WERRETT CHARTERS

(1871-1965) Major Work: Foundations of Education Kilpatrick believed education should be child centered, in which children provide input while the education takes on the role of a guide, as opposed to that of an authoritative figure. He believed in integrating subject matter and that students should be enabled to direct learning in accordance to their interests and environment, through their natural senses. Kilpartrick developed the Project Method, a form of progressive education, for early childhood education, believing that it organized curriculum around the central theme of a subject.

CURRICULA THEORISTSBY LISA WEEDMAN

WILLIAM KILPATRICK

RALPH W. TYLER

HOLLIS CASWELL

(1886-1960) Major Work: The Child Centered School - Rugg promoted a child-centered curriculum that focused of educating the entire child and not just limiting one’s focus to a specific area. Rugg believed teachers should plan instruction in advance and should relate instruction to the learning experiences, interests, and needs of students. Rugg’s curriculum emphasized social studies.

HAROLD RUGG


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