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by SA339176
Last updated 7 years ago

Social Studies
European history

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The First CrusadeThe First Crusade lasted from 1069 C.E. to 1099 C.E. It started because Pope Urban II wanted the Christians to take over the Holy Land. The Christians were led by a preacher named Peter the Hermit and a knight named Walter Sansavoir. It was fought in Jerusalem (the Holy City). The Christians captured Jerusalem and set up crusader states (military states set up like mini fuedal kindgoms) in Turkey. They also killed everyone living in the Holy City.

The Second CrusadeThe Second Crusade started in 1147 C.E. because the Muslim forces started to recpature the Crusader states. The Crusaders were led by Emperor Conrad II of Germany and King Louis VII of France. It was fought in Damascus which is located in northern Palestine. When they finally reached Palestine, their attack failed, so everyone went home in defeat. The Second Crusade ended in 1149 C.E.


The Crusades

The Third CrusadeThe Muslim leader, Saladin's victory in Jerusalem, inspired the Third Crusade in 1189. This Crusade is often referred to as the "King's Crusade" led by Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, Philip Augustus of France and Fredrick I of Germany. However, Fredrick died while on his way to Acre while swimming. The Christians captured Acre after fighting for 23 months. After Acre was captured, Philip returned back home. Richard stayed behind but couldn't capture Jerusalem. However, he was able to recapture many other cities and arrange a 5 year truce with Saladin that allowed pilgrims to freely visit Jerusalem in 1192.

The Fourth CrusadeIn 1202 CE, Pope Innocent asked Christain leaders to participate in a 4th crusade. The Crusaders needed boats from Venice, but didn't have enough money. The Venetians would only allow the Crusaders to use the boats if they helped them take over Zara, a Christian city in modern day Hungary. After they helped them to conquer Zara, Alexius IV offered to assist the Crusaders take over Jerusalem if they helped him overthrow the Byzantine Emperor. After, Alexius gained power again, he didn't hold up his side of the bargain. So, the Crusaders took piles of money, jewels, and gold from Constantinople and burned libraries and churches. Afterwards, they returned home in 1204.


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