Cost Benefit of Early Childhood

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Cost Benefit of Early Childhood

Cost Benefit ofEarly ChildhoodEducation101Christina Amenta, Hannah Brenner, Amy Budz, Brett Wolf, Nicole Yoon

Myth Busters! Preschool/Early Childhood education only benefits disadvantaged children (low-income children) - Both groups benefit, though children from low-income backgrounds benefit more.- Middle-class children can benefit substantially, and that benefits outweigh costs for children from middle-income as well as those from low-income families- Positive and substantial impacts on language, literacy, and mathematics skills are found for both low- and middle-income children

Family Perspective- Address medical/health concerns that may become more costly in the future; parents are involved in ensuring that their children receive dental care, has health insurance, has immunization, etc.- Programs such as Head Start provide preventive dental care, comprehensive screening of children, tracking of well-child visits and required immunization- Cost savings include reduced spending for special education and grade retention, as well as lower involvement/investment in child protection, welfare, criminal justice systems/crime, teen pregnancy, health care needs, etc.- Help combat family/life circumstances that children are born into and are not under their control, but have powerful effects on their development (e.g. parents’ level of education and economic resources, prenatal/drug abuse, violence, neglect, single parenthood, etc.)- Interventions that are most likely to be successful in improving children’s future human capital are delivered in early childhood and incorporate work with parents; involvement of family support results in significant differences in outcomes and achievement in adulthood- Assist parents in developing a family environment that will promote good social skills and behavior will have lasting effects that will impact on the child in adulthood- Parents should receive training in why and how to nurture their children’s development at home and outside of the early childhood program hoursInvest in cost of parent mentoring and in qualified mentors to ensure parental involvement- Must acknowledge the crucial roles of families in fostering skill and the variety of abilities required to succeed in modern economy; in the early preschool years, skill formation comes most directly from and are most shaped by families and non-institutional environments- For the same level of investment at each age, the return is higher in human capital when a dollar is spent on the young than when it is spent on the old; families should invest in high-quality early education programs rather than spending on future educational needs/services when the child is older

Societal Perspective - There’s a cost benefit -different studies estimate the range from three to seven dollars saved for every dollar spent on early childhood. Some of the factors that go into these estimates are the reduced spending later for SPED services and grade retention as well as students who receive quality early childhood education are less likely to be in child protective services, need welfare or be a part of the criminal justice system that the government has to pay for. - Early Childhood benefits more than just the disadvantaged children- Quality preschool education can benefit middle-class children as well as disadvantaged children; typically developing children as well as children with special needs; and dual language learners as well as native speakers.- Children who attend preschool make more - In studies done, children who attended an early childhood program were more likely to graduate high school and complete more schooling than their peers who did not.- Less likely to become criminals- In one study, the rate of felony convictions or incarcerations by age 21 of children who had attended an early childhood program was one third less than those who hadn’t attended. - Less likely to become pregnant as a teenager - One of the longitudinal studies completed on the benefits of early childhood intervention found that those who had attended preschool were less likely to get pregnant as a teenager than those who hadn’t. - Overall healthier- One study on Head Start programs found that those who had attended were healthier than those who didn’t. Another study found that those who had attended preschool were less likely to use tobacco products.

School System Perspective - Reduced spending on special education and grade retention -Interesting quote- “the best current evidence suggests that the impact of quality preschool per dollar spent on cognitive and achievement outcomes is larger than the average impact of other well-known educational interventions per dollar spent, such as class-size reductions in elementary schools.”-Increased classroom readiness (social skills, self-control, motivation) which improves quality of school/classrooms/learning-Three to seven dollars saved for every dollar spent-Lower school readiness can result in lost aid as unprepared students become unsuccessful students and may eventually turn into dropouts -According to a study done on school readiness (because of early education) in Michigan:-$221 million in K-12 savings:$136 million in reduced spending because fewer K-12 students repeated a grade $69 million in reduced special education spending for disabilities that have been prevented or ameliorated through early intervention such as mild or moderate speech or language problems, cognitive impairment, specific learning disabilities, emotional impairment, and other health problems $16 million in reduced costs of replacing teachers who leave their jobs due to dissatisfaction with workingconditions related to student behavior or performance that are influenced by improved school readiness

Sources:Anton, Paul., Chase, Richard. (2009). Cost Savings Analysis of School Readiness in Michigan. Wilder Research, Saint Paul, Minnesota. Retrieved from http://greatstartforkids.org/sites/default/files/file/Smmary_ECIC_Wilder%20Study.pdfBrooks-Gunn, J., Burchinal, M. R., Espinosa, L. M., Gormley, W. T., Ludwig, J., Magnuson, K. A., ... ' Zaslow, M. J. (2013). Investing in our future: the evidence base on preschool education. Societyfor Research in Child Development and Foundation for Child Development.Early child education: the economic case for investment. (2013). Prevention Action. Grunewald, R., ' Rolnick, A.J, (2003). Early childhood development: economic development with a highpublic return. Fedgazette.Grunewald, R., ' Rolnick, A.J. (2005). Early childhood development on a large scale. Fedgazette. Heckman, J. J. (2002). Invest in the very young. Ounce of Prevention Fund.

Student Perspective- The earlier you intervene with a child, the less you will have to spend on interventions because as you age, the types of intervention only become longer and more intense because the time it takes to learn new skills. - Parents paying for interventions early also means less money student might have to pay for services once they reach adulthood- Early childhood special education provides economic opportunities that may not have been possible without these services - Better chances at higher level education- Developing the motor skillsnecessary to perform many of the jobs that don’t require a college degree- Gives children a chance to break the cycle of poverty- Improving a child’s social, self-control, and motivation have a huge factor on the future success of a child - direct correlation between success and finances- Making college is only one step to academic success - having that mental health can get you through college once you make it - prevent drop out- Main point, if an intervention is necessary, the student will benefit financially if it is done earlier rather than later


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