[2015] Ashley Cook: Compulsory Education

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[2015] Ashley Cook: Compulsory Education

*Motor development, self activity of children before reaching elementary level*Used games, stories, music, and language activities

* Freedmen's Bureau- "Foundations for Education" for former slaves. Operated day, night, and on Sundays. In 1869, 9,500 teachers taught in Freedmen's schools. By 1870, 4,329 schools were established with 247,000 students. *Booker T. Washington- attended Hampton Normal & Agricultural institute of Virginia. After graduating, 4 years later, he became the 1st African American instructor. (Tuskegee Idea- education bgins at the bottom and expands naturally)*William E. Burdhart DuBois- 1st African American to be awarded a Ph.D. and 1 of the founders of the NAACP.

Schooling For African Americans

Friedrich Froebel

Committee of Ten*1892-1893, Nine conferences that focused on latin, greek, english, other modern languages, math, physics, astronomy, and chemistry, natural history (Biology, Botany, Zoology), History, civil government, and political science, and geography (physical geography, Geology, Meteorology) in high school curriculum.

The Professionalization of Teaching

*1879- Total of 131 teachers were working in 53 classes*U.S. Bureau of Education recorded a total of 12 classes in 1873 with 72 teachers and 1,252 students*2008- enrollment was 2,659,000 in public and 320,000 in private


Compulsory Education (1865-1920)

"Garden where children grow" * First kindergarten was in 1837 * Margarethe Schurz (1832-1876), opened the first U.S. kindergarten at her home in Wisconsin in 1855* Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (1804-1891), opened the first private English speaking kindergarten in Boston in 1860 * Susan Blow (1843-1916), first succesfull public kindergarten in the U.S. in 1873

Committee of Fifteen*1893-1895, Published the introduction of Latin, modern languages, and Algebra in elementary curriculum.*Focused on five basic subjects: Grammar, Literature, Arithmetic, Geography, and History.

Reorganization of Secondary Education*Appointed in 1913, Released in 1918, Called for a high school curriculum to accomodates individual differences in scholastic ability. Seven educational goals: Health, command of fundamental processes (reading, writing, and computation), worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time, ethical character.

Women's Influence on Teaching*Women became influential in shaping educational policies during the early 1900's. (For example: Ella Flag young-superintendent of Chicago schools in 1909-1915, Catherine Goggin and Margaret Haley- leaders of the Chicago Teacher's Federation, and Jane Addams-founder Hull House which was a social and educational center for poor immigrants)

During the era of Emancipation, freedmen schools opened and former slaves began to meet to earn an education.



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