Color Blindness

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Color Blindness

Color blindness is a condition that affects how people see color in the world. Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, is a genetic condition. That means it is passed down by your parents and other relatives. Genes are bundled in structures called chromosomes. Color blindness is inherited on the X chromosome. The certain mutated gene in the X chromosome causes abnormal or non-working photopigments. Color blindness may also occur due to long-standing diseases, chronic illnesses, damage to the eye and optic nerve, damage to the part of the brain that processes color, certain medications, accidents such as strokes, and age. There is an estimated two hundred fifty million people worldwide that are color blind.

What is color blindness?

Are you color blind?

This is an example of an Ishihara Color Test. You have to identify a number to see if your are color blind or not. If you identify the number, you aren't color blind. The answer will be in the bottom right corner.

What genes determine color blindness?

Certain genetic conditions may determine if you are color blind or not. X and Y chromosomes determine your gender. XX means you are female, and XY means you are male. The color blindness gene is carried on the X chromosome. If the mother has a color blindness gene, there is a fifty percent chance she will pass it on to her child. The father cannot pass on the color blindness gene to his son, because the son would have to receive the Y chromosome instead.

Does color blindness affect one gender over another?

Depending on your gender, you may be more prone to color blindness. Males are more likely to inherit color blindness than females. Since males only have one X chromosome, if the mutated gene gets passed on to them, they will be color blind. On the other hand, females have two X chromosomes. Both chromosomes would have to have the mutated gene for a female to be color blind. Females may also possess a mutated gene on only one of their chromosomes. That means they are a carrier. They have the gene, but they are not color blind. They may pass on this gene to their children, and they may not pass the gene on to their children.

What types of color blindness are there?

There are a few different types of color blindness, some of which are rarer than others. In your eyes, there are light-sensitive cells called photoreceptors. Some are called rods, and others are called cones. Cones process brighter light, while rods process dimmer light. Cones contain one of three different photopigments; blue red, and green. These photopigments allow you to see these colors. All your cones work together to process lots of different colors. The mutated gene for color blindness causes some of these cones to be abnormal or non-working. There are three different main types of color blindness. There is red-green, blue-yellow, and monochromacy. Red-green is the most common form of color blindness, and monochromacy is the rarest. Red-green color blindness is the inability to distinguish red from green. There are four different kinds of red-green color blindness. Protanomaly is when there are abnormal red cone photopigments. Protanopia is when there are no working red cone cells. There is also deuteranomaly, which is when there is abnormal green cone photopigments, and deuteranopia, which is no working green cone cells. Another form of color blindness is blue-yellow color blindness, or the inability to distinguish blue from yellow. The two different types of blue-yellow color blindness are tritanomaly and tritanopia. Tritanomaly is a limited amount of blue cone cells. This makes blue appear greener. Tritanopia is a lack of blue cone cells. The last form of color blindness is monochromacy. This makes you see only black, gray, and white. Cone monochromacy is failure of two out of three cone photopigments to work. Rod monochromacy is failure of all cone photopigments.

What are some tests for color blindness?

There are lots of different tests for color blindness, but no cure. The Ishihara Color Test is the most common test for red-green color blindness. You must identify a number in a picture of dots. The number will most likely be green dots, and the area surrounding it are red dots. Another test is the newer Cambridge Color Test. It's very similar to the Ishihara Color Test, but it is on the computer. The anomaloscope uses eye pieces to test. The HRR Pseudoisochromatic Color Test tests red-green color blindness using color plates. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test uses pegs or blocks of the same color, but in different shades. The goal is to arrange them in order of hue. This tests the ability to discriminate subtle color changes. Finally, there is the Farnsworth Lantern Test. It's used by the military to test the severity of color blindness. If they pass with only mild color blindness, they are allowed to serve.

Works Consulted

8 is the answer for the test.

Color Blindness

By Iris Hummingbird


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