Cloning

In Glogpedia

by MaddyClare
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Genetics

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Cloning

cloning is when a ceritan piece of DNA is copied and removed from a particular organism

Cloning

What is it?

There are two types of cloning that are done, Artificial Embryo Twinning and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. AET is the same process that creates identical twins. However, instead of being done in the mother, it's done in a petri dish and then put into multiple surrogate mothers.

Artificial Embryo Twinning

SCNT is a process in which the nucleus is extraced from and egg cell and replace with the nucleus of DNA from cell tissue of another organism. That egg cell then produces an organism that is a cloned copy of the cell tissue donor.

This process is different from regular fertilization because only DNA from one parent is carried through to the offspring. The Dna of the tissue donor is the DNA that is replicated in the next generation, instead of the mothers DNA mixed with the fathers as a normal feritlization would do.

Cloning an organism involves making a repica of the entire organsim, while cloning a gene only requires copying of one specific gene and studying it individualy.

Cloning started in 1885 when reasearchers successfully cloned the genes of a sea urchin. In 1952 the first successful nuclear transfer happened with a tadpole. In 1996, Dolly the sheep was the very first mammal to be produced through cloning. In 2001, the first endangered animal was produced through SCNT. In 2013, the first human embryo's were created with nuclear transfer.

A chance to clone lab specimins may arise. Meaning that we would be able to clone the animal lab subjects to test medicines. The animals in labs are bred to cooperate with the medications. If cloning were possible the breeding would not be needed as its a very difficlut task to accomplish correctly.

It is often found that people do not like the idea of cloning beause of the many myths that are included. One of the myths is that the clone is not an individul. However, it's not juse an exact copy. While genetic material is extremly similar, their mental processing could be very different. Especially with artificial twinning. It's the same as having identical twins, yet it doesn't happen naturaly. Another myth is that cloning is newer technology. However cloning has been going on since the late 1800's

There is a possibility to clone once living things that are now extinct, like dinosaurs. If scientists could find a good enough sample of dinosaur DNA and fertilize it correctly there is a chance that they could reproduce dinosaurs. The mystery of dinosaurs would finally be solved through genetic cloning.


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