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by cozybell
Last updated 6 years ago

Cell Biology

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Artificial Embryo TwinningThis approach is the easier of the two and it requires less technology. The process is similar to that of nature's when creating twins, except for one small difference. Twins are born when the embryo splits in half and develops into two different babies. With artificial embryo twinning, the same sequence is followed, but it occurs in a petri dish. The embryos develop for a short time before they are placed into the surrogate mother to finish growing.


Cloning is the process of making an exact copy of an organism. Although cloning usually refers to the scientific process, it can be found in nature, like the birth of twins. Clones are widely known in media and entertainment, but the process isn't as easy as they make it seem, and it has many risks.

Somatic Cell Nuclear TransferSCNT is a more complicated approach but it produces the same outcome. This process includes the use of a somatic cell- any cell other than the reproductive cells, and a nucleus- the compartment of the cell that holds DNA. To clone the organism, scientists isolate one of its somatic cells and suck out its nucleus. This nucleus is then transferred into the egg cell, where electric currents are used to fuse the membranes. With some chemical aid, the egg will act as an embryo and begin to develop. It can then be placed in a surrogate mother to grow into a baby. This is the process that was used to make Dolly the sheep!

What is the difference between cloning an organism and cloning a gene?When an organism is cloned, the entire organism is copied and duplicated. A gene, when cloned, is only one specific gene that is copied. Generally, scientists copy the gene's DNA sequence into a simpler form of DNA. From there, they can observe the gene and its function.

The History of Cloning-In 1997, Dolly the sheep was born! She was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell. -In 1988, Elsie was introduced as a clone of the last Enderby island cow. -In 2002, the first cloned cat, CC, was born-In 2005, Snuppy, the first cloned dog was born

How does SCNT differ from normal cloning?In the natural process of making an embryo, one set of chromosomes is from the father's sperm cell and one set is from the mother's egg cell. However, in an artificial embryo, both of the chromosome sets are from the somatic cell. This is because the original set in the egg cell was removed and replaced by the two sets already in the somatic cell's nucleus.

Cloning in MedicineIn medicine, scientists study diseases using transgenic animals that are created to carry mutated genes. Cloning could reduce the time that it takes to create these animals and provide subjects that are genetically the same.

Cloning Endangered and Extinct Animals Scientists are working to bring back entinct species using cloning. Although it is very unlikely that dinosaurs will be successfully cloned, other animals that became extinct more recently have a decent shot at being brought back to life. They nearly succeeded at reviving the bucardo, but even the longest survivor did not last very long. If they succeed, they might be able to tinker with the embryo to create a male bucardo as well, giving them the chance to reproduce. Endangered species definitely have a better chance of a successful cloning because the cells used to clone are healthy and living. Some species have already been cloned, like bison and deer. However, some scientists believe that cloning animals will not help them recover because not only do they lose their genetic diversity, but the other factors that made them endangered are still not reduced.

Cloning HumansCurrently, cloning humans is illegal. There are too many risks and frankly, many people find the thought immoral. Although it could help women who have fertility issues, the proccess is inefficient and often ends in miscarriages anyways. Other ideas that have been spawned by the supporters are crazy, like farming clones for their organs and such. As of now, scientists are spending their time developing embyronic stem cells, which is probably the closest they will ever get to cloning a human.

Instant ClonesMany people believe that when you clone something, the clone is instantly the same age as the original organism. However, clones start as embryos and therefore have to grow just like any normal organism.

Cloning is a new technologyCloning has been around for a long time, especially in plants. Although cloning a plant is much simpler, it's cloning nontheless. Even cloning in animals has been around for a good chunk of time. For example, the first SCNT was in the 1970s with frogs.

How is Cloning Done?


Why Clone?


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