Cloning

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by ryaneruszala
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Life Science

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Cloning

Cloning

What is cloning?

To make an identical copy of an organism

How does it work?

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer:The DNA and nucleus of an egg is removed and the DNA and nucleus of a somatic cell (any cell that is not an egg/sperm cell) is inserted. It is then implanted into a surrogate mother.

Artificial Embryo Twinning:A very early embryo is separated into multiple separate cells and startsto develop. It then finishes developingin surrogate mothers.

What's the difference between normal fertilization and SCNT?

SCNT requires the extraction of DNA from a male and it is inserted into the female egg in a lab. (As seen at left).

Cloning an Organism vs. Cloning a Gene

Organism: an exact copy of the organism is madeGene: the gene copy can be placed into a new organism to change part of the organism

The History of Cloning

The first failed cloning experiment was in 1952, while the first successful cloning experiment was in 1997. Between those years, there were many that were close to success, such as frog embryos that later died and calves born from only 120 cells. in 1998, fifty mice were cloned (over 3 generations) from a single mouse. Pigs and goats were cloned to aid in medicine (1999 and 2000). In 2001 the first human embryo is cloned, but it never grows larger than 6 cells, but in 2004 stem cells are extracted from a human embryo.

Endangered/Extinct Species

Reproducing Deceased Pets

Cloning in Medicine

Somatic Cell Nuclear transfer is used to "resurrect" a deceased pet. DNA from the animal is inserted into a surrogate.

Pigs were cloned in 2000 for use in the organ transplantion of humans. Goats have been cloned (and genetically altered) to produce a protein in their milk to treat heart attacks and strokes.

Extinct species may be able to be "reborn" through the process of cloning (called de-extinction). A pyrenean ibex has already been brought back from extinction - but it's lifespan only consisted of seven minutes. Old stem cells can be inserted into a new egg and the organism can be cloned. Endangered species can use the same process to ensure survival. These can be carried out in a lab.

Myths of Cloning

A common misconception is that a clone will magically appear at the same age as you. However, cloning occurs at the embryonic stage, and it would need time to grow and develop.

Many people believe that cloning is always an artificial process. Bacteria and yeast reproduce asexually, and always produce exact clones.

A belief of cloning is that cloning could create more geniuses and people that would benefit our society. Genetic diversity, however, is important for survival. If an epidemic sweeps through, there wouldn't be anyone with an immunity, therefore wiping out our society.


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