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Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer:Cells are taken from the specimen to be cloned, and their nucleus is removed. A surrogate mother is chosen, and the nucleus is removed from her eggs. The nucleus from the first cells is implanted into the eggs, and grown in a petri dish until they are ready to be implanted into the surrogate mother. This is different from normal fertilization as the offspring will be identical to the specimen the DNA was taken from, as in normal fertilization the offspring is a combination of traits from the mother and the father.


Artificial Embryo Twinning:The cells of an embryo are seperated so that they form into seperate embryos that are genetically identical to the original. These embryos are then implanted into four different surogate mothers, and four identical specimens are born.

History of CloningThe first instance of cloning was shown in 1885 by Hans Adolf Edward Dreisch, who used Artificial Embryo Twinning to clone a sea urchin. In 1928, it was discovered that the nucleus controlled the development of embryos, and scientists began cloning using nuclear transfer. The problem was that the clones in these attempts and the ones that followed all died within a short amount of time. This was until in 1996 Dolly the sheep was created, the first mammal cloned using Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, who lived. After that, many more animals were successfully cloned and even an extinct one. One of the most recent developments in cloning was the development of a human embryo and stem cells.

Cloning Myth: Same Age ClonesWhen asked to think of cloning, many people would associate it with a copy of the exact same age appearing instantly. This isn't true though, as in all types of cloning, the clones start out as embryos and have to grow at the same rate as any other speciman.

Cloning Myth: Clones Will Be Completely IdenticalWhile clones are genetically identical to the original, because of differences in how the DNA is expressed, and factors in their environment, the clone will most likely not look completely the same as the original or act the same.

Cloning Livestock:Good livestock that have been fixed or are sterile can be cloned to produce breedable animals with the same desirable traits. For example, cows that produce the best quality meat could be cloned. Not to be used for more meat, but for breeding to create more cows that would produce the same good quality of meat.

Cloning An Organism And Cloning A Gene:When cloning an organism, scietists are doing just that with a goal of cloning the whole organism. When cloning a gene, scientists are only taking a small part of an organisms DNA and making copies with the goal of studying it's purpose.

What is Cloning?Cloning is the process in which exact genetic copies of an organism are created.

Cloning Endangered/Extinct Species:By taking genetic material from extict animals and using somatic cell nuclear transfer, it is be possible to de-extinct an animal (this has been done with an extinct mountain goat called the bucardo, but the goat died after it was born). By using the same method with endangered animals, their numbers could be controlled to keep them from going extinct.

Cloning And Drug Production:By cloning animals that produce products, drug companies could insert coding into their DNA which would cause the animal to produce a certain drug. For example, a cow could be cloned to incorporate a gene that would produce a certain drug in its milk.


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