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by TiaSanti
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What Is Cloning?Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical. How Is It Done?An early embryo is separatded into into individual cells, which can divide and develop for s period of time in a Petri dish. They embryos are then placed into a surrogate mother, where they can finish developing. All these eggs are genetically identical therefore making an Artifical Emrbryo Twin.

Cloning:Tia Santi

SCNT:Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is also a way to clone but uses a different meathod. 1. The nucleus of a somatic cell is removed.2. At the same time, the nucleus of an egg cell is removed and the nucleus from the somatic cell is inserted into the egg cell. 3. The somatic cell nucleus is put back to its host egg cell and is stimulated with a shock and will divide. 4. Thus producing a an adult organism.

It is different from fertilization because the egg cell's single set of chromosomes is removed and replaced by the nucleus from a somatic cell, which already contains two complete sets of chromosomes. So, in the resulting embryo, both sets of chromosomes come from the somatic cell.

History of Cloning:Hans Spemann theorized that animals could be cloned by fusing one embryo with an egg cell. Two American scientists, Robert Briggs and T. J. King, attempted to replace frog egg nuclei with adult frog nuclei.

Cloning An Organism:1. Replicate an entire being2. Insufficent3. Taking an intact nucleus of one cell and putting in intact into another.Cloning A Gene:1. Copying strands of DNA2. Easier and Faster.

Cloning Timeline1885- First Ever Demonstration of Artificial Embryo Twinning1902- Artificial Embryo Twinning in a Vertebrate1928- The Cell Nucleus controls Embryonic Development1952- First successfull Nuclear Transfer1958- Nuclear Transfer From a Differentiated Cell1984- First mammal Created by Nuclear Transfer1996- Dolly: First Mammal Created by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

Why Clone?

Drug Production:1. Take cells from a cow that produces large amounts of milk and grow thm in culture. Instert a gene that codes for a drug or vaccine , It would develop a cow with the drug in its prouct. 2. The gene would pass down to ists offspring.

Cloning Livestock:1. Cloning can give way to an animal that is able to pass its superior genes to its offspring. 2. One specific type of livestock that is able to withstand multiple factors, can be existant in all offspring when they are cloned.

Medicine:1. Reduce the time needed to make a transgenic animal model to test for disease2. Creating Stem cells that are genetically identical to any specific person. They could possibly grow new organs, help researchers better understand disease.

Myths:1. Instant Clones: Not the same age as original2. Carbon Copies: The two will grow differently3. Cloned Animals Live Short Lives and Suffer From Health Problems.


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