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What is it?


What Exactly Is Cloning?Cloning is a process used to create an exact genetic replica of another organism. These clones are exact genetic copies of one another. Cloning can happen naturally, such as identical twins, or they can be created in a lab, like the first animal to ever be cloned, Dolly the Sheep.

How Is Cloning Done?Cloning is done in two different methods: artificial embryo twinning and Somatic cell nuclear transfer.Artifical Embryo Twinning: Artificial embryo twinning is basically making identical twins, but in a petri dish instead of in the mothers body. An embryo is divided into it’s single cells. They are let to separate and develop for a bit. Then, they are placed into a surrogate mother, and after they are finished growing, they come out as identical twins. Both of the embryos came from the same egg, so they have the exact same genes.Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer has the same outcome as Artificial Embryo Twinning, but it has a different method. A somatic cell, any other cell in the body besides a reproductive cell, is taken from the female. Then, they take an egg cell and remove all of it’s DNA, taking the nucleus completely out. They pull the nucleus from the somatic cell and place it in the egg cell. After a bit of modifying, the cell is ready to be put into a surrogate mother. There, it develops and comes out as an identical twin to the female that they took the somatic cell from.

History Of CloningBack in 1885, cloning was first starting to be experimented. The first ever example of Artificial embryo twinning was demonstrated with sea urchins. In 1902, Hans Spemann took a step up and successfully cloned a vertebrate using the artificial embryo twinning method. In 1952 and 1958, the first nuclear transfers happened. In 1984, the first mammal was created using nuclear transfer, a sheep. In 1996, Dolly the sheep was created, the first animal to be cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer method. More and more animals were cloned, but in 2013, human embryonic stem cells were created by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Cloning in Medicine Scientists uses a lot of animals with diseases to test their medicines. It takes a long time and a lot of tries to make sure the animal model has what they need. If they just cloned them, it would be a lot easier to have the models they need to test on. Also, cloning could help give people the extra stem cells or organs they need to survive. That way, they wouldn’t need to wait for a donor.

Endangered/Extinct Species Scientists have been working on bringing back animals that have gone extinct. By having their DNA, and a closely related species, they could create an extinct animal. Scientists have already made clones of certain species, but most don’t think they’ll survive due to having no genetic diversity.

Reproducing Deceased PetsA biotechnology company created a program where you could clone your cat, but the cat won’t be the exact same as before. A kitten was cloned, but it didn’t look the same as the cat it was cloned from. Due to it having two X chromosomes, the color of the coat turned out different. The kitten turned off an X chromosome, so it only had a black and white coat, instead of a black, white, and orange one.

Cloning MythsInstant clones: People might say that as soon as you clone something, they are the exact age as the thing you cloned. But, clones start from an embryo, they have to be raised from a baby. Cloned animals live short lives and suffer from health problems: Cloning may often result in failure, but most of the animals that are cloned live long and healthy lives. Most animals turn out just fine.

Difference Between Ferlitziation and SCNTIn fertilization, the sperm and egg only have one set of chromosomes. When they join, they form an embryo that now has two sets of chromosomes. But in SCNT, the single set of chromosomes is completely removed, and then replaced with two sets of chromosomes from a somatic cell. The embryo now already has two sets.

The Difference Between Cloning An Organism and Cloning a Gene? When cloning an organism, or a certain animal, the whole object is cloned, meaning every single one of its genes. But when cloning a gene, they make sure it’s isolated so it is just that piece of DNA. They also put it into an easier form to deal with so it’s easier to study.


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