Cloning

In Glogpedia

by wspenc33
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Cell Biology
Grade:
11

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Cloning

In a Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer you first start by taking a somatic cell from the animal to be cloned and by taking an unfertilized egg from another donor. The nucleus is then removed from the egg and the somatic cell. With the help of an electric current, the somatic cell nucleas is then fused with the empty egg. This reconstructed embryo is then given time to grow before being implanted in it's surrogate mother.

A clone is an organism with the exact same DNA as another organism. Cloning is the process of creating these identical organisms. Cloning is done in one of two ways, Artificial Embryo Twinning and by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

During Artificial Embryo Twinning, an embryo begins to develop normally. However, after the cell divides they are removed, seperated, and placed in a surrogate mother. These cells all have the same DNA and develop much in the same way as naturally occurring identical twins.

The difference between SCNT and natural fertilization lies purely in where the chromosomes for the embryo come from. Rather than getting a single set of chromosomes from each parent, SCNT takes the two sets of chromosomes from a single somatic cell from a donor.

There is a big difference between cloning a gene and cloning an organism, though. Cloning an organism creates an exact genetic copy of a whole organism, while cloning a gene only makes copies of a specific piece of a strand of DNA. These pieces are often in form of plasmids.

The first reported idea for cloning was in 1938. It wasn't until many years later that scientists began to actually attempt it. They began to test cloning with smaller non-mammals such a sea urchins and frogs, often without much success. It wasn't until later during 1996 that the famous Dolly was born, the clone from cells of another adult sheep. Since then, many animals have been successfully cloned with some even attempting, although unsuccessfully, to bring back an extict species of goat in 2009.

Cloning

Artificial Embryo Twinning

SCNT vs. Natural Fertilization

History of Cloning

Gene cloning vs. Organism cloning

SCNT

What is cloning?

Why Clone?

Stem cells build and repair our bodies throughout our lives and have a variety of possible medical uses. However, stem cells from others are often seen as foreign substances by the body and are rejected. However, if we could clone our own stem cells we could use them without fear of rejection.

In order to test lots of medicines and effects on diseases, scientists need test mice with those diseases. If cloning were perfected, it would be easier than the extensive breeding and planning required to make the mice now.

Cloning could allow us to save or restore endangered or extinct species. We can boost their populations to a healthy amount.

With all these new advances in cloning technology, there are a few common misconceptions about it. Many people fail to realize that even if they make a clone of themselves, the clone won't end up the same age as them. It still starts just as any other embryo. Cloning also doen't create a perfect replica of whatever you are cloning. A lot of personality and behavior are learned. It goes back to nature vs. nurture. Finally, while many think that clones are purely artificial. Natural cloning happens on a daily basis. Technically identical twins are clones. They have the exaxt same DNA.

Cloning Myths

(Attempt at cloning extinct species of wild mountain goat.)


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