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Somatic Cell Nuclear TransferIn Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, the nucleus along with all the dna is removed from the egg cell. Then, they transfer the nucleus from the Somatic cell (skin cells, anything other than egg or sperm cells) and insert it into the egg cell. The egg cell with it’s new nucleus will begin to develop into an embryo.

What is Cloning?Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.

Cloning is done two ways: artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Artificial Embryo TwinningAET is carried out in a Petri dish instead of inside the mother. A very early embryo is separated into individual cells, which are allowed to divide and develop for a short time in the Petri dish. The embryos are then placed into a surrogate mother, where they finish developing.

Difference between SCNT and normal fertilization?In fertilization, the sperm and egg have one set of chromosomes each. When the sperm and egg join, they grow into an embryo with two sets.In SCNT, the egg cell's single set of chromosomes is removed. It is replaced by the nucleus from a somatic cell, which already contains two complete sets of chromosomes.

Cloning an Organism vs a gene?When scientists clone an organism, they are making an exact genetic copy of the whole organism,When scientists clone a gene, they isolate and make exact copies of just one of an organism's genes.

HIstory of Cloning1885-First ever demonstration of artifiial embryo twinning. 1902-Hans Spemann twinned a salamander with using a strand of baby hair to attatch to cells of a salamander1928-Hans Spemann squeezed a fertilized slamander egg to push the nucleus to one side of the cytoplasm. 1952-First successful nuclear transfer by Briggs and King1958-Nuclear transfer from a differentiated cell1975- Frist mammallian embryo created by nuclear transfer.1984-First mammal created by nuclear transfer 1987- Nuclear transfer from embryonic cell1996-Nuclear transfer from laboratory cells1996- Dolly: First mammal created by somatic cell nuclear tranfer. Wilmut and Campbell1997- First primate created by embryonic cell nuclear transfer2001- Endangered animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear tranfer2013- Human embryonic stem cells created by somatic cell nuclear transfer

Why Clone?You can clone to reproduce deceased pets, allowing yourself to never let go of the memories of your loved one and it's presence. However, its behaviors and personalities will not be the same. You can mass produce livestock for breeding, resulting in more production of animals. You can twin high quality milk or meat cows quickly.Farm animals like cows are being engineered to produce drugs or proteins that are useful in medicing. The cow could be able to make the drug in it's milk, an easier way of getting your substance and nutrients.

Myths about CloningA clone would appear the same age as the original False, Cloning is a way to create an embryo, not a full grown indiviualA clone would have the same exact identity and personality False, The clone will grow and develop in a completely different environment than the original. Different mother, exposed to different experiences throughout development and life.Cloning is always an artificial process False, clones can be made in lab through artifical embryo twinning but also within asexual reproductionCloning is a new technology False, humans have been cloning for thousands of years. Fruits we eat come from artificially created clones.


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