CLONING

In Glogpedia

by ahmad24
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Biology
Grade:
12

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CLONING

Reproductive cloning would essentially mean cloning of an entire humans DNA, meaning the human would be genetically identical to another human either one that is still alive or dead. This not only affects religious standings but also affects society’s values on human dignity as well as possibly infringing upon principles of individual freedom, identity and autonomy. Consequently, opponents argue that using this technique to collect embryonic stem cells is wrong, regardless of whether such cells are used to benefit sick or injured people. Reproductive cloning is used to clone animals. This very low efficiency, combined with safety concerns, presents a serious obstacle to the application of reproductive cloning. For instance, Dolly was the only clone to be born live out of a total of 277 cloned embryos. Reproductive cloning is a very inefficient technique and most cloned animal embryos cannot develop into healthy individuals.

Therapeutic cloning, while offering the potential for treating humans suffering from disease or injury, would require the destruction of human embryos in the test tube. Today if someone needed stem cells transferred from one person to another (such as in a bone marrow transplant) are seen as foreign, and they usually trigger an immune response. Because these are processes that stem cells do naturally, the cloned stem cells can be manipulated to repair damaged or diseased organs and tissues. Stem cells build, maintain, and repair the body throughout our lives.

DNA cloning can likely advance our healthcare system into another age. However there are so many ethical and legal issues holding this technology back. In some opinions this is good a thing. By creating certain laws and bringing up the ethical issues behind DNA cloning this is minimizing the harmful consequences that will occur once this technology advances. Many states in the U.S. have already banned the use of DNA cloning over 14 states banned DNA cloning. The United Nations after two years of debate has voted in March 2005 to approve a non-binding global ban on all human cloning. These laws are helping minimize the consequences of unethical human cloning.

Cloning goes against the basic belief of certain religions that only God has created life and its various forms in nature. Humans cannot act as God. Ethically, it is wrong for any human to have control over the genetic make-up of any other individual. The cloned individual would be generated for specific purposes. This in essence is wrong wherein the purpose of an individual's life should be more than just satisfying someone else's needs. Cloning strips away a human’s identity. They no longer have the choice or freedom of individuality. Also another issue is how the cloned human will react to his parents and family. Or how will the parents react to the cloned individual all these questions with no real answer leads us to believe this is clearly unethical. Another issue we have is the lack of guarantee of a health child being born. With a genetically modified baby being born we never know what health complications may grow, such as cancer. The high failure rate in cloning mammals and other species is completely unacceptable when it comes to cloning humans imagine having to put down a human because it has a disease from the cloning. That is unethically and criminally wrong

The success rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 3 percent, which means that for every 1000 tries, only one to 30 clones are made. Or you can look at it as 970 to 999 failures in 1000 tries. Some causes of the high failure right are •The enucleated egg and the transferred nucleus may not be compatible•An egg with a newly transferred nucleus may not begin to divide or develop properly•Implantation of the embryo into the surrogate mother might fail•The pregnancy itself might fail

This compares the death rates and abortion rates of cloned embryos versus embryos from embryo transfer. There is a much higher rate of embryonic and post-partum deaths for cloned animals versus non-cloned.

After anazlyzing both sides with an unbiased opinion. I am a strong believer of God and all that is ethical, however after learning about how fascinating the technology can possibly be, as well as how far ahead it can set us it terms of health cares some of my beliefs and ethics were put aside. Cloning is a wonderful advancement in technology and knowledge. I do agree it should never be used to reproduce humans though. The only way to bring life into this world is by natural causes created by God himself. We were created by God and we are subjected to his laws in which we must follow. We cannot play the role of God and bring and recreate life in this world as well altering there image. However cloning tissues and organs I believe fall into a different category and does not relate to cloning human beings. It would be a huge leap in terms of health care and science itself if we could clone organs and tissues. However the research involves fetal tissue which is a completely different ethical discussion. From what I learned with my personal research I would allow cloning for tissues and organs. It will forever save lives and move us forward in terms of health care technology.

Introduction

The Issue

How the Issue is being Adressed

Relevant Statistics

Personal Opinion

DNA Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical. Clones can happen naturally—identical twins are just one of many examples. Or they can be made in the lab. The ethical issues surrounding DNA cloning are a constant battle between scientists and society. However the procedures of DNA cloning could change the way health care stands today. Cloning to make stem cells. Cloning animal models of disease, Reviving Endangered or Extinct Species, Reproducing a Deceased Pet, Cloning livestock, Drug production, Cloning Humans. All these procedures can forever change and benefit our health care system. So why hasn’t all this cloning theories happened? Simply because of the lack of support from society and the ethical and moral issues surrounding it which I will explain.


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