[2015] Caroline Ross 1B (AP Bio 1B): Cloning Plants And Animals

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Cell Biology

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[2015] Caroline Ross 1B (AP Bio 1B): Cloning Plants And Animals

The Cons:-Loss of gene diversity which is important for gene resistance-Ethical concerns cause people to protest-Animal cloning has high pregnancy losses and high mortality rates during the neonatal period-Some plants may need cross pollination that the will not achieve from clones-Telomere shortening in adult somatic cells used in cloning may lead to premature aging and early death. -Risk of cloning technology being abused-Technology is still uncertain for cloning and long term affects are unknown-Genetic weaknesses are preserved-Limits potential for growth-Deformities and fatal mutations are likely with cloning

Cloning Plants & AnimalsBy: Mason Riggs, Emily Preti, Caroline Ross, and Kayla Hooper

Methods:-A simple organism is much easier to clone.-An entire cell of a simple organism can be inserted into bacteria or a yeast culture that reproduces asexually. As the cultures multiply, the cells inserted inside them do as well.-Cloning higher animals is much harder. -One method is to remove the nucleus of one cell by using special instruments and then inserting that into the nucleus of another cell-Another method is to divide embryo tissues and insert those into a surrogate mother, where they can then develop normally

ResultsIn 1958 Steward conducted an experiment which tested the ability of individual cells from a carrot plants, to turn into whole plants. His experiment was successful, and the result was single somatic carrot cell developed into a mature carrot plant. This informed Steward that single somatic cells have the ability to turn into clones. In 1996 scientist successfully cloned a lamb from a somatic cell. This was a landmark achievement because to clone an animal the genes from the somatic cell must be completely turned off, which was a difficult process because out of 277 attempts Dolly was the only success. This discovery brought the controversial topic of cloning to the public, and from Dolly scientist will be able to expand their research to other animals and eventually humans. In 2001 the first household cat was cloned. CC was created from Rainbows DNA. Even though the two cats are clones they do not look identical. CC does not have the same orange coloring. This is because in cats fur color is determined on the X gene of the cat, which can be turned on and off. The DNA from Rainbow contained a suppressed X gene, which caused the different coloration. This is the first step to bringing the applications of cloning closer to the public.

Introduction:-A clone is a cell, group of cells, or an entire organism produced by asexual reproduction. This reproduction contains genetic info that is identical to the parent cell-The first cloning was with grafts and stem cutting which has been done for more than 2,000 years-Modern cloning began in 1958 when Frederick C. Steward cloned carrot plants from a single cell that was put in a nutrient rich culture containing hormones.-The first attempt at cloning animal cells was in 1964Importance: Cloning is important because it allows for new ways of producing things faster and with less energy, diseases can be understood and cured easier, and our understanding of the animals around us increases.

The Pros:-Reduces time and energy needed for farmers to select and breed the best of their animals.- The best traits of certain animals and plants will be kept and passed down for future generations.- Cloning can be used for treatment of disease by providing cell and tissue replacement. - Technique can be used to preserve endangered species.-Cloning would provide great opportunities for commerce and future scientific research.-Cloning Dolly, the sheep, was a success so future research and experiments could also be successful.-The public should support this research because it could make a lot of technological advances for the future and could find cures to diseases.

Our Group Opinion:Our group feels as though cloning is a good choice, especially on plants and animals. We would be able to learn so much about science through different research. As long as precautions are taken, for example, no experimenting on endangered species, then we can only find good solutions to problems that we face today like disease.


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