civil war

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Social Studies
American History

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civil war


Battle of Bull Run (1861): The media and many citizens were pressuring Lincoln to attack the Confederacy, and after a while, he obliged. July 21, 1861, Union troops headed from Washington, D.C. to Richmond, Virginia. Before long, the Union met Confederate soldiers by a small Virginia stream called Bull Run. At first, the Union soldiers broke through Confederate battle lines. Then, Confederate soldier Thomas Jackson gathered Confederate troops at a nearby hill and stood strong, giving him the nickname “Stonewall” Jackson. Seeing Jackson, the Union troops ran in a panic. The Union and Confederacy learned from the Battle of Bull Run that they both needed to train their soldiers, and that they were in for a long and grueling war.Virginia v. Monitor (1862): In the beginning of the war, the Union barricaded the Southern ports, blocking all Confederate trade. This caused Southern trade to drop 90%. The South needed to destroy the blockades, so they used ironclad ships. Confederates took Union warship the USS Merrimack and renamed it the Virginia. The Virginia destroyed 2 Union ships and drove 3 more aground. The Union countered with an ironclad called the Monitor, and the 2 ships clashed off the shores of Virginia. Neither did any major damage to the other, and both withdrew. Later, the Confederates sank the Virginia because the Union captured Norfolk. Ironclads greatly impacted warfare, and the Union Navy held strong throughout the war. Antietam (1862): The battle was fought on September 17, 1862. It is known as the single bloodiest day in American history with a combined casualty of 22,717. General Lee took the offenses and marched his troops north into Maryland and ran into the Union. This was the first major battle in Union territory. Abraham Lincoln’s army was able to hold off the invading Confederacy and it was a strategic Union victory.Fredericksburg (1862): Burnside led his troops to the target city but was stopped shortly due to the Rapahannock river which the Union was forced to build a bridge across. While waiting for a bridge the Confederacy got to the city and occupied it along with the high ground behind it. The Confederacy shot down many Union soldiers with their snipers. The Union ended up losing 13,000 soldiers in comparison to 5,000 from the Confederacy. The South won this battle because they used strategies. Chancellorsville: Lee and Stonewall Jackson fought the union on wooded ground near Chancellorsville, Virginia. They defeated the union troops in 3 days. The confederacy though suffered a loss of Stonewall Jackson who was shot by confederate troops who thought he was a union troop.Gettysburg: This battle was fought near the village of Gettysburg and was a 3 day battle. During the first day, the confederacy drove the union back into a ridge overlooking the town and the next day lee ordered the troops to attack both sides of the union army, even though they fought hard the union still held its ground and ended the battle in their favor.Fort Wagner (1863): On July 18th, 1863 the 54th Massachusetts Regiment led a charge on Fort Wagner. The 54th Massachusetts Regiment was the first all-black regiment to go to war. Almost half of the regiment died and the fort was never taken from the Confederates. Even though the Union lost the battle they gained courage and will due to the fact that the regiment knew they would be slaughtered, but they led the charge anyways. This battle encouraged other regiments to do acts of valor in equivalent ways, which helped the Union win the war. Sherman's March to Sea (1864): On November 15th, General Ulysses Grant ordered General Sherman to march to the sea and demolish Georgia and Atlanta on his way and end by capturing port Savannah. General Sherman was also ordered to destroy everything useful for the Confederacy, this was total war. Sherman divided his army into two wings, composed of 60,000 men each. This made his journey quicker and easier. The men ran through the villages, ripping up train tracks, burning them, moving them, and killing livestock. This was a total disaster for the Confederacy.

Fort Wagner

Red- ConfederacyBlue- Union

Civil War

Inset Maps




Bull Run

Virginia v. Monitor



Sherman's march to Sea


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