Civil Rights Movement

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Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement

By: Dalia Alsbinati

Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg School DistrictSwann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education (1970) was an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the busing of students to promote integration in public schools. After the first trial going to the Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that busing was the appropriate remedy for the situation of racial imbalance in schools. The impact of the this court case was to ensure the schools would be properly integrated and that all student regardless of their race would receive equal educational opportunities.

Greensboro Sit-inThe Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1960 which led to the Woolworth restaurant chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States. It helped leading Martin Luther King Jr's Idea of non-violence and peaceful protests. Which provided the type of reaction the movement wanted which was a public highlight of the harsh treatment of those involved while also continuing to signify the issue of desegregation in the South. Even though it wasn't the first sit in ever to happen in the African Civil Rights movement, the Greensboro sit-ins were an important action to the movement. The effect of this nonviolent is further encouragement of people to step and allow African Americans to dine wherever they prefer regardless of race as well as other rights African Americans deserve to have.

Pearsall PlanThe Pearsall Plan was a document of legislation in North Carolina, developed in 1952-1956, to address the issue of the racial desegregation of their schools. The origin of the plan was from a committee formed by state governor William B Umstead in a response to the Supreme Court Case: Brown vs. Board of Education. Although it did not in theory prevent the formation of integrated schools, but it did offer parents and local school boards new ideas for avoiding desegregation. The impact of this was the ability to let anyone enter public schools without any segregation and to let everyone earn an equal education.

Civil Rights in NC

Key Events

Montgomery Bus BoycottThe Montgomery Bus Boycott was one of the many racial segregation political and social protests of the Civil Rights Movement. It protested towards the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. Lasting from December 1, 1955, same day when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956, also the same day that the federal ruling of Browder v. Gayle took effect leading to the U.S's Supreme Court decision that declared Alabama and Montgomery laws making any segregated bus unconstitutional. The impact of this boycott was the further more uprising of people standing up to give the African Americans the rights to have the freedom to sit wherever they would like to sit in a vehicle without having to sit in a assigned section of a vehicle which unfortunately happened when there was segregation during this time period.

Brown v. Board of EducationThe Brown v. Board of Education, taken place in Topeka, Kansas on behalf of thirteen Topeka parents and their twenty children, was a significant United States Supreme Court in which the Court declared laws establishing separate public schools for both black and white students unconstitutional. The case called for the school district to reverse its policy of racial segregation. It conflicted with the Plessy v. Ferguson case which allowed state-sponsored segregation that specifically applied to the education of students. The case received a unanimous decision stating that "separate education facilities are inherently unequal." The effect of this case to America was that it paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the civil rights movement.

"I Have A Dream""I Have a Dream" is a public speech delivered by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. on August 28, 1963 in which he calls for an end to racism in the United States. Spoken to over 250,000 civil rights supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, this speech was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. Martin Luther King Jr. began his speech with a reference to the Emancipation Proclamation, and claims that "one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free". Towards the end of the speech, he describes his dreams of freedom and equality in the US including his famous line: "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judges not by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character." The effect from this victorious speech is the increase of publicity of the civil rights movement and the larger urge to pressure Congress to give African Americans their equal rights.

Voting Rights Act 1965The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of Congress in the US that finally prohibits discrimination in voting. It was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the Civil Rights Movement on August 6, 1965. People such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa were present at the signing to support the cause. The act was designed to further enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the US constitution. It is considered to be the most effective piece of civil rights legislation ever enacted in the country. Therefore, the impact on America from this act is the banning of discrimination in voting and equality for everyone.

Civil Rights Act 1964The Civil Rights Act, enacted July 2, 1964, is an important piece of the civil rights legislation in the US that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. It put an end to things like the unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation at schools, at workplaces, and all facilities that served the general public. First proposed by President John F. Kennedy, it survived strong opposition from southern members of Congress and was then signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson. In later years, Congress expanded the act and also passed additional laws aimed at bringing equality to African Americans. The impact of this significant act is the dimming down of the civil rights movement and finally equality to everyone even the African Americans.

Key People

Malcolm XMalcolm X, born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, was an African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. Malcolm X believed that black people must develop their own society and ethical values, including the self-help, community-based enterprises that the Black Muslims supported. His impact on our society was his contributing act of helping African Americans gain their rights and raise awareness to others to stand up.

Jackie RobinsonJack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson was an American baseball player who became the first African-American to play in Major League Baseball in the modern era. He broke the racial color line for baseball when the Brooklyn Dodgers took him in as a player. The Dodgers ended racial segregation that had rejected black players to other leagues for decades. Robinson had as well an exceptional baseball career, playing in six world series, six all star games, and much more. His impact on America was that he challenged the traditional basis of segregation which inspired many people and he contributed significantly to the Civil Rights Movement.

Rosa ParksRosa Parks was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled which lead to her arrestment that same day. Her act of defiance and the important symbol of the civil rights movement and became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. Her effect on America was that she inspired many people to stand up for what they believe in especially for equality and she as just one person out of many activists who also encouraged many to help.

Martin Luther King Jr.Martin Luther King Jr. was an American pastor, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and help find the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and organized the 1963 March on Washington where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. He established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in history. On October 14, 1964 King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial imbalance with no violence at all. His enormous impact on America was that he inspired millions as well to be who they want to be and speak for what you believe regardless of your background and is still known as one of the most important people in history.

Medgar EversMedgar Evers was an African-American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi. After returning from overseas military service in World War II and completing his secondary education, he became active in the civil rights movement. He also became a field secretary for the NAACP. Evers was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith on June 12, 1963, but his murder and the resulting trials inspired civil rights protests, as well as numerous works of art, music, and film. His impact to our society is attempting on putting an end to racial segregation, and contributing hope for the people of Mississippi and American that blacks would one day be treated like civilized human beings.

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