Civil Rights Movement: Jackie Robinson and Truman

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by sophiev2016
Last updated 5 years ago

Social Studies
African-American History

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Civil Rights Movement: Jackie Robinson and Truman

Truman Desegates Armed Forces The order stated that "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." The order also established the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services a.k.a. the Fahy Committee. However, staff officers from all branches protested. The Fahy Committee worked with the different branches of the military to ensure that the armed forces instituted integration in their recruitment and unit composition practices. Full integration did not come until the Korean War however, when heavy casualties forced segregated units to merge for survival.

Civil Rights Movement: Jackie Robinson and Truman Desegates Armed Forces

Truman Desegates Armed ForcesPresident Truman had been examining the issue of segregation in the armed forces since at least 1947, when he appointed the President's Committee on Civil Rights. By January 1948, internal White House memos indicated that the President was determined to end military segregation by executive order. However, it was not until the delegates at the 1948 Democratic National Convention called for a liberal civil rights plank that included desegregation of the armed forces that Truman felt comfortable enough to issue Executive Order Number 9981 on July 26.

Jackie RobinsonIn 1945, a talented young player named Jackie Robinson joined the Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro American League. He would become baseball's "great experiment." In 1945, baseball policies separating black and white players changed forever when Brooklyn Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey signed a contract with Jackie Robinson that would bring him into the major leagues. Rickey, who called the move baseball's "great experiment," knew that the player chosen to cross the "color line" would have to be a strong individual, able to stand up to intense public observation and also be able to avoid confrontation even when met with insults and hostility. On October 23, 1945, Robinson officially signed his contract with the Dodgers. After a year on a minor league team to sharpen his skills, he put on his first Dodgers uniform (number 42) in April 1947.

Jackie RobinsonIn late-19th century America, baseball was segregated. There were separate teams for black players because they were not allowed to play on white professional teams. In the late 1800s, professional African American players played on all-black teams such as the Cuban Giants. But some baseball managers and owners of Major League teams wanted to hire African Americans. In order to get around the rules, they listed some black players as Hispanic or Native American.


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