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Martin Luther King Jr

Martin Luther King Jr. was born January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. His father was the president to NAACP and led not only religious, but political speeches in his church. He also led voter-registration marches which I'm sure impacted Dr. King to pursue the career of a civil rights activist. Dr. King became a minister which led to his great knowledge of not only basic subjects, but on religion and physchology. He aslo attended Boston University in 1951. There he met Coretta Scott and they got happily married on June 18, 1953. He decided to be a civil rights activist after hearing of the NAACP official Rosa Parks getting arrested after refusing to give up her seat. Dr. King's name grew after his prominence to non-violence and the boycotts all over the south. He gave speeches all over the East side of America to provoke more followers on the expedition of black rights.

President Johnson

President Andrew Johnson was Lincoln's vice president and soon became president after Lincoln was assassinated. He followed Lincoln's steps and granted amnesty to the black officials from war, but when the states created their "black" laws he could do nothing because federal power is nothing over the state power. He was then impeached by government officials for his controversial views by creating the civil rights act of 1875. President Johnson paved a path for african-americans all over the world the day he signed the civil rights act.

Little Rock Nine

The Little Rock Nine were by far the most influential in education rights for African-Americans. In Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957, nine black teenagers decided to break the no color rule at school when the central school decided to inetergrate and allow those nine teens to attend. However, there were soldiers surrounding the school within bayonnett range to prevent the students from attending. Also an angry mob of segregationalists threatened, jeered, and physically beat the students whose ages ranged from fifteen to seventeen. After being verbally abused periodically Minniejean Brown lost her temper and said a "racial comment"to one of those teenagers and immediately got expelled while the antagonist stayed in good standing. During the rest of the shool year they didn't recieve a formal education because the schools were closed down due to the violent segregationalists. On the other hand, when the schools re-opened they were integrated.

Earl Warren was born on March 19, 1891 in Los Angeles, California, United States. He was chief justice in 1953 until 1969. During his first term the case Brown v. Board of Education. He marshaled a unanimous court ruling that separate schools were unequal and unjust. This act led to the elimination of Jim Crow laws. In 1955 Warren wrote a decree to end the segregation in all schools. Also he was trying to stop discrimination in other facilities and places. Earl Warren was a big influence in the civil rights era by having power and using it to the best of his ability to end segregation. By stopping segregation in schools he allowed many young African Americans to receive a good education.

Earl Warren

Loving V. Virginia

A black woman and a white man went to the Virginia services to get married and were greeted by a year in prison for the violation of the racial integrity act. They were refused marriage because of their skin color. These people were violating a law that was meant to "sterilize" society by preventing interracial marriage. These two then went to court where they unanimously voted against the act. It's funny how a couple non-violent protests and 40 years later changes the minds of people who just a couple years before would have turned their back to the case. This shows the true power of the people.

The Watts Riot

On August 11, 1965 Marquette Frye and his brother were stopped and detained by police officials. Their mother soon came to stop this and was arrested too. A large crowd soon gathered and rebelled because of the known brutality to black people from the officials. This all took place outside a neighborhood named Watts were the soon to be riot got its name. By August 18, 1965 at least 34 African Americans were killed and a few apartment buildings and churches were burned down with a total damage cost of 200 million. This horrific event was dubbed the name the Watts Riot. This event really captures the gross, terrible actions of officials thought to be protecting people. Among all groups i think the officials were the ones doing the most harm in this era of discrimination.

Montgomery Boycotts

This began on December 5, 1955 to protest Rosa Park's trial. These black people wanted equality on bus seats where they could sit in the front without being moved because a white person arrived. White people were so prominent to stop this from happening that they used snipers to shoot at the buses, physical coercion, and even tried to ram the bus off the road to prevent blacks from using the bus system. However this stopped because now the black’s car pooled to prevent going on the bus. In fact, some even walked on purpose to avoid them. While this was going on the MIA now chose to file a report on not just mobile buses but all to claim all seating segregation unlawful and illegal. At this time people bombed the homes of King Jr. and black leader E.D. Nixon. On 13 November 1956 the Supreme Court unanimously affirmed the three-judge court's declaration that bus segregation was unconstitutional. The boycott ended December 20, 1956 when the federal court finalized their order of integrating the buses.

Rosa Parks Movement

Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was born February 04, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. On the evening of December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks loaded onto a bus after work. When she got on the bus she realized the bus driver was one who had thrown her off before and since tried to avoid. Soon after she had boarded the bus filled and a white man was left standing. The bus driver yelled at the "blacks" to move a seat back. The other three blacks who were sitting near Ms. Parks moved back, but she did not budge. The police were then called and arrested her. When later asked about it she responded “When I made that decision, I knew that I had the strength of my ancestors with me." She was then convicted of violating the segregation laws also known as the "Jim Crow" laws. Ms. Parks then appealed against this and questioned the legality of segregation. Her courage sparked the beginning of the Montgomery Bus Boycotts.


I Have a Dream


Sit-In Campaign

14th Amendment

Malcolm X

Emmett Till

Grandfather Clause

The KKK or the Ku Klux Klan is a developed supremacist organization with only the intentions of terrorizing and hurting blacks. During the civil rights era the kkk's only goal was to stop and deny any rights for African Americans while abusing them physically. The Klan bombed households, murdered and attacked supporters and African Americans while never being convicted righteously. They dressed in white robes and paraded around towns where they burned churches and crosses. Also they did this action to blacks called lynching. Lynching by definition is for a mob to kill (someone), especially by hanging, for an alleged offense with or without a legal trial. However, contradictory to this statement the mobs usually didn’t just hang, but preform terrible inhumane acts on the person to cause as much pain as possible.

The Grandfather Clause was designed by southern legislatives to stop the suffrage of African Americans. However, within this clause it also stated that the children of slaves must take a test to be viable to vote. This test then consisted of literacy checks, proper holding requirements, and poll taxes. This clause supposedly "helping" them was only ever doing damage. With this clause it eliminated one whole generation of African Americans able to vote. This unjust clause was made purposely to prevent African Americans and only allow whites. This clause was really to the satisfaction of white officials and put out only to sub-due those who could not stand up for themselves. The Grandfather Clause was an unjust way for white people to claim they were helping when in actuality doing more damage.

On February 1, 1960 a new strategy was made for a peaceful impact on these African Americans. Four African Americans walked up to an only white diner called Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina. They calmly ordered a coffee and were not only refused, but threatened, beaten, and intimidated by tons of people in the restaurant. However, even though they were refused they sat still and silently for their orders. This started many sit-ins to come. African Americans from all over started to do this and sit calmly for their order even though many angry whites would try to provoke them, scream, and when some would violently physically attack one of them the poor person would just curl into a ball and take the beatings. Their perseverance was so strong that even when police came and arrested them a new row of blacks would take their vacated seats. About 1500 were arrested before the school year ended. However, their sacrifices were not in vain! Soon after many of these sit-ins southern restaurants started to integrate their restaurants. This battle was one to come of many.

On August 28, 1963 Martin Luther King Jr stood at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. Throughout his speech he claims he had a dream which showed his views of what the world should be like with integrated visions. His speech motivated people so much that because of him the acts of abolishing segregation really started. He was sadly assassinated there, but he did not die in vain for this speech was one among many which had affected lives everywhere by influencing the views of segregationists and activists. His non-violence choices and educated mind helped shape the world we know today. Dr. King was one of the most respectable, influential men in world history and his name shall be remembered forever.

Malcolm X a.k.a. Malcolm Little was born on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska, United States. He journeyed to New York where he did crimes of all sort such as con games, stealing, and peddling dope. He was sent to a Massachusetts jail where he then met his inmate who changed his life forever by explaining the importance of education and taught him self-respect which was hard a African American at that time. He was released in 1952 and became a minister and teaching young blacks self-respect and self-esteem. At first he was portrayed as a leader of hate and promoter of violence. He once quoted "If you are afraid to tell the truth why, you don't deserve freedom." He contradicted Dr. King and said nonviolence is the philosophy of a fool. in fact, he went as far as saying "While King was having a dream, the rest of us Negroes are having a nightmare." After Dr. King's "I have a dream" speech. He later grew independent of his temple and spoke out. Only a year after his independence on February 21, 1965 in New York, New York Malcolm X was assassinated.

The fourteenth amendment is the most crucial of all bringing equality rights for African Americans. This amendment was adopted on July9, 1868 which granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States". Also it denies states from forbidding any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law". Also to not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” denies the rights citizens like blacks should have in our society. This amendment greatly impacted the lives of African Americans greatly by providing them equality not only in the court, but in life providing an integrated community. Also when the segregationists tried to fight back the African Americans could now go to a court and have to br treated with equality.

Emmett Till was born on July 25, 1941 in Chicago, Illinois. One day Emmett was with his friends when they dared him to ask out the married Carolyn Bryant. He went in the store and bought a pack of gum before taking her hand and asking her out. She shrieked and ran in disgust. Understanding the seriousness of the event one of his friends grabbed him and ran, but not before he wolf whistled at her. This is story is not totally known and especially the debate of whether he whistled or not. Then Mr. Bryant and some of his friends arrived at Till's house and grabbed Emmett and forced him in the car. The rest of the details are not fully clear, but what is, is the fact that Emmett Till was cruelly beaten to death and then shot. Apparently he was said to have talked back and bragged about all the white ladies he had. Three days after Emmett was taken a fisherman found a beaten up corpse with a gin fan attached to the neck. A ring on one of his fingers allowed identification which his mother confirmed. At his funeral she forced an open casket for all to see her mutilated son. At court Mr. Bryant and Milam were still not found guilty after all evidence and suspects confirmed it was them. This case was one of few to show the unjust system of law and awful racist people.

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