civil defence

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civil defence


Formally, the SCDF is branched into 6 Operational and Training Divisions beneath the Headquarters Element. Of these six, four are known as Operational Divisions, also known as Territorial Divisions, and each cover vast sections of Singapore corresponding roughly to the four cardinal points of the compass. Each of the divisions possess their own bunkered and mobile Command Centres, Hazmat response capabilities, as well as full internal administration structures.The two core training establishments, namely the Civil Defence Academy (CDA) and Basic Rescue Training Centre (BRTC), while not covering any territory or have any primarily operational concerns, are recognised as divisions unto themselves with full administration, supply and support units. These units, however, would become operationally active divisions in times of emergency or war.

Operational DivisionsThe 1st Division oversees operations in the general south of Singapore, stretching from Clementi to the Central Business District (CBD). It is also in charge of Jurong Island, an important oil refining centre. The division headquarters is located at Queensway, behind Alexandra Hospital, together with the Queenstown Police Centre and Alexandra Fire Station.The 2nd Division oversees operations in the east of Singapore, including Paya Lebar, where the HQ complex is located, as well as Changi Airport. The headquarters are located in Tampines, co-located with the Tampines Fire Station.The 3rd Division covers the northern segment of Singapore, and is headquartered at Yishun together with Yishun Fire Station.The 4th Division oversees operations in the west of Singapore, and is headquartered at Bukit Batok, together with Bukit Batok Fire Station.[edit]Training DivisionsThe Basic Rescue Training Centre (BRTC) trains primarily enlistees, with a new battalion of 3-4 companies passing out every quarter with competency in basic rescue skills as well as an adequate level of fitness. The BRTC complex also houses a Special Rescue Battalion. In response to the problem of conscripts who are reluctant to serve national service, a detention block with razor wire fences installed around the building also exists at the new training centre at Jalan Bahar as in other SAF military camps. While co-located next to each other since the relocation of the BRTC in 2006 to a brand new complex, the BRTC is not to be confused with the Civil Defence Academy.The Civil Defence Academy (CDA) conducts training courses for various vocations and specialisations, ranging from firefighters to medics to physical training instructors (PTIs) and officers, both senior and junior. Although primarily to prepare recruits freshly graduated from the BRTC for operational duty, the CDA also frequently hosts guest trainees from outside the SCDF, including fire brigades and emergency crews from other nations. While courses such as the International Fire-fighting Course are specially designed and held for these guests, some of these guests trainees train together with Singapore trainees in the Emergency Response Specialist (ERS) Course and/or Basic Officer Course (BOC), graduating together with NSFs and regulars as either junior specialist or senior officers.Both the BRTC and CDA complexes are co-located in Choa Chu Kang, along Jalan Bahar Road.

AppliancesA display formation exhibiting a number of SCDF appliances.The Singapore Civil Defence Force maintains a large fleet of custom-made vehicles (referred to as appliances) to provide an emergency response force capable of mitigating any and all kinds of fires and disasters. Ranging from the generic fire truck and ambulance, to more sophisticated mobile command structures and disaster mitigation vehicles such as Hazardous Materials (Hazmat) Pods, many of the appliances were designed and commissioned by the Force itself which prides itself in customising its own fleet as opposed to obtaining ready-made designs from industries. This is directed towards improving the Force's response capability towards an increasingly large variety of emergency scenarios and threats, in addition to basic firefighting and paramedical services, particularly in the Singapore context.The following list of appliances is not exhaustive, and is grouped according to application as well as the order of scale of response capability.

Paramedical Response VehiclesFast Response Paramedic (FRP)Essentially a paramedic on a heavy motorcycle with a small array of portable first aid equipment and tools, the FRP is meant to provide the most rapid form of emergency medical response. This is especially useful when there are traffic jams on roads leading to an incident site which would delay a conventional ambulance.AmbulanceOften referred to as the "Alpha", the red and white SCDF ambulance forms the backbone of Singapore's medical emergency response capability, and is the most widely-deployed appliance. Each ambulance is staffed by an ambulance driver, a paramedic, and a medical orderly. Occasionally, a Fire & Rescue Specialist or ERS trainee may also be attached to an ambulance unit.SWIFT (Station With Immediate First-aid Treatment)The SWIFT is a "Transformer" vehicle, and functions as a mobile hospital. On the roads, it takes the form of a vehicle roughly the size of a small bus, and expands on both sides when it reaches the incident site. When fully deployed, it is capable of treating a large number of patients concurrently on operating tables that slide out beneath its "wings".This vehicle is seldom used other than for mass-casualty events requiring on-site treatment capabilities.[edit]Firefighting AppliancesThe Light Fire Attack Vehicle (LFAV) Red RhinoFire BikeThe fire bike is essentially operate by a firefighter on a motorbike, equipped with an impulse water canon. The fire bikes are often deployed as rapid-response units or scouts to minor incidents, such as small fires. They are often backed up by a Red Rhino (refer below).Light Fire Attack Vehicle (LFAV aka Red Rhino)A brainchild of SCDF Commissioner James Tan, and known affectionately as the "Red Rhino", the LFAV is an all-terrain vehicle with a small pump and monitor turret capable of seating 4-5 responders. It is seen around the country parked near to Fire Posts, and is designed to traverse off roads to aid in firefighting of densely built-up areas without road access which conventional Pumper-Ladders may not be able to reach.The Red Rhino was designed and conceptualised in Singapore, being manufactured by the company ComfortDelGro.An SCDF water pumper truck parked outside the Civil Defence building on Hill Street.Rapid Mitigation Vehicle (RMV)A variation of the original LFAV Red Rhino, the Rapid Mitigation Vehicle uses a long-range water mist monitor instead of a standard Apollo water monitor to save water and more effectively combat fire.Pump-Ladder (PL)The pumper ladder is otherwise known as the generic Fire Engine. It is one of the mainstays of SCDF's firefighting capability, and is the vehicle most often seen at the scene of a fire.The PL typically carries a wide range of equipments required for emergencies, ranging from hoses, to breathing apparatuses, to rescue equipments such as the hydraulic spreader cutter and to chemical agent suits required for Hazmat decontamination or mitigation incidents before the arrival of a Hazmat team.An SCDF Combined Platform Ladder (CPL) Vehicle at Bukit BatokCombined Platform-Ladder (CPL)Pictured near the top of this article, the CPL is basically a PL with a hydraulic ladder-platform which can be raised high enough for height rescue and firefighting, such as with a high-rise apartment fire. Models such as the Bronto CPL can reach heights up to 32 metres.Aerial Ladder (AL)A vehicle with a superstructure and rescue cage that is 60 metres in length. It is primarily used during height rescues for trapped victims during emergency situations. It can also be used to combat fires through external fire-fighting.Tracked Firefighting Vehicle (TFV)Several Bandvagn 206 (Bv206) were transferred from the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) to the SCDF, painted in the SCDF colours of red and white, and subsequently fitted with the necessary firefighting equipment and capabilities. The TFV is designed for use in forested areas where wheeled vehicles may have difficulty in reaching.[edit]Hazmat AppliancesHazMat Enforcement BikesSince 2006, the SCDF has implemented a nationwide monitoring system for vehicles carrying Hazardous Materials, such as fuel, in which their position is tracked from SCDF and Police HQ. When a certain vehicle carrying, for example, high explosives, approaches a zone to which it is out of bounds, such as the downtown Central Business District, an alarm will trigger and SCDF will disable the vehicle as well as dispatch enforcement bikes quickly to the location to deal with the errant vehicle.The enforcement bikes are ridden by Provost officers, and may be backed up by the police, to mitigate the threat posed by such a vehicle by securing it and moving it away from the area.Hazmat Decon PodThe Hazmat Decon Pod sucks in contaminated air and purifies it at a high rate in order to remove atmospheric toxic material and render an area more hospitable for work following a chemical, biological or radiological (CBR) incident.Personnel Decontamination Vehicle (PDV)The size of a large bus, the PDV is one of the largest operational appliances that the SCDF has. It is the main mode of transport and response of the Special Rescue Battalion, housed at the BRTC. It is also designed to cater for mass casualty incidents involving (CBR) substances, and is fully equipped to decontaminate, by shower, a large amount of casualties at one go when deployed.Outside HazMat incidents, it functions as a troop carrier for the SRB, as well as a super-ambulance capable of evacuating an entire busload of casualties to hospital for treatment.Special Decontamination vehicle (SDV)The SDV, in addition to performing the function of the Hazmat Decon Pod, also decontaminates the terrain with a large amount of water and carries specialised equipment used by the Special Rescue Battalion.[edit]Command ElementsCommand Post (CP)Roughly larger than an ambulance, the Command Post is deployed to incident sites (such as a building collapse) together with a rescue battalion where co-ordination of rescue and recovery efforts takes place.Hazmat Command Vehicle (HCV)The Hazmat Command Vehicle is essentially a Command Post specifically designed for command and control during a CBR incident. It is equipped for this task with a wide array of instruments and sensors which can, for example, monitor and help predict toxic material presence and dispersion in the wind.Forward Command Vehicle (FCV)The FCV is a larger version of the command post, and is deployed at the Division Level. It serves the purpose of a mobile communications and control centre and is deployed during more serious incidents requiring division-level advanced command capabilities.Command Vehicle (CV)SCDF maintains a fleet of 5 Command Vehicles, which together function as a mobile headquarters command and control centre. The vehicles are the size of a large bus, and when deployed, the body of the vehicle stretches to thrice its size on the road, allowing ample space inside the vehicle for personnel and essential computer and communications equipment.These Command Vehicles are only deployed to strategic locations to provide forward tactical headquarters capability in major incidents or high-risk events, such as the recent IMF-World Bank conference held in Singapore in 2006.[edit]Special VehiclesBreathing Apparatus Tender (BAT)A vehicleed includes breathing apparatus and life detection equipment.Heavy Rescue Tender (HRT)Like the SRT, the HRT is used primarily by the DART unit, and carries specialised equipment catering to uncommon or major incidents, such as structural collapses and underwater rescue. The special equipment is carried in mobular containers which can be interchanged to suit the operation before being deployed, and the vehicle possesses a crane as well.HISTORY of SCDF* --> reference --> < >For decades since its founding by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, the British colony of Singapore had no formal fire fighting force. Fire fighting was carried out using a cart of water and hand pump, and involved the police, sepoys, marine soldiers and even convicts.It was not until 1869 that the colonial government took the matter seriously and set up a Fire Brigade.[citation needed] A number of volunteer brigades were formed, but they were a motley crew and failed dismally when put to the task, performing no better than their predecessors.[dubious – discuss]Following the establishment of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade in England in 1866 and other fire-fighting systems in America, the Municipal Commission finally took over the responsibility of fire protection and established the Singapore Fire Brigade in 1888. It was supplied with new engines from Europe and fire stations were built with living quarters for trained and paid fire fighters.From 1908, horse-drawn engines were replaced by motorised versions. The same year, the Central Fire Station along Hill Street was officially opened.In 1917, a motor ambulance was acquired by the Hospitals Board, and was put on loan to the Fire Brigade until the Hospital Buildings were completed. When an ambulance service for accident cases was established in March 1928, it was put under the purview of the Fire Brigade.

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