Circulatory system

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by sagalamminsivu
Last updated 6 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Human Anatomy
Grade:
10

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Circulatory system

Circulatory system

The function of circulatory system is to circulate blood throughout the body and transport oxygen to cells. The circulatory system also takes care of transporting carbon dioxide back to lungs.

From right atrium, the blood flows to the right ventricle. At this point the blood is deoxygenated. The right ventricle contracts and the blood flows to pulmonary artery, which transports the blood to the lungs where it is oxygenated. This process is pulmonary circulation, which is followed by systematic circulation. Pulmonary veins take the blood back to heart, first left atrium and then left ventricle. Then blood is pumped to aorta which branches into arteries and arterioleses, which connect to capillaries. Oxygen is changed into carbon dioxide and veins take the deoxygenated blood back to right atrium.

The main components of blood are plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets. Plasma is the liquid component of blood. Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide and they contain hemoglobin. White blood cells protect the body against infections. Platelets help with clottin g a bleed.

Blood on the left side of the heart is oxygenated; blood on the right is deoxygenated.

The circulation is divided into two parts, pulmonary and systematic circuits. Pulmonary circuit takes up the oxygen from the lungs; systematic circuit distributes it throughout the body. Coronary circuit includes the route of the blood inside the heart muscle.

The impulse of a heartbeat starts in the SA node, in the right atrium. The electric activity spreads through both atria and causes them to contract, forcing the blood into ventricles.

Blood pressure is the strenght of the blood pushing against the vessels. If blood pressure is too high, it can lead to attacks and strokes due to too high pressure against the vessels.

The body starts producing new blood if the red blood cell level is too low. The kidneys start producing a hormone that stimulates the stem cells in the marrow to produce more red cells. Spleen destroys old blood cells and when required, it can also produce new red blood cells.

Hypertension, as known as high blood pressure, means that the pressure that the blood creates against the vessels is too high and can lead to heart diseases, such as heart attacks and strokes. Atherosclerosis is the build-up of fats, cholesterol and other substances in the artery walls. It can cause a clog in the arteries which can lead to strokes and heart attacks. This can be prevented by healthy diet and exercise.


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