Circulatory System

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by melmalithong
Last updated 5 years ago

Human Anatomy

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Circulatory System

1.Blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae,and the coronary sinus.2. From right atrium, it goes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle.3. From the right ventricle, it goes through the pulmonary semilunar valves tothe pulmonary trunk4. From the pulmonary trunk it moves into the right and left pulmonaryarteries to the lungs.5. From the lungs, oxygenated blood is returned to the heart through thepulmonary veins.6. From the pulmonary veins, blood flows into the left atrium.7. From the left atrium, blood flows through the bicuspid (mitral) valve intothe left ventricle.8. From the left ventricle, it goes through the aortic semilunar valves into theascending aorta.9. Blood is distributed to the rest of the body (systemic circulation) from theaorta


The heart and blood and other stuff



1) Arteries carry blood away from the heart2) Capillaries carry blood away from the body and exchange nutrients, waste, and oxygen with tissues at the cellular level3)Veins are blood vessels that bring blood back to the heart and drain blood from organs and limbs.

Coronary heart diseaseSymptoms:It may feel heavy or like someone is squeezing your heart. You feel it under your breast bone (sternum), but also in your neck, arms, stomach, or upper back.The pain usually occurs with activity or emotion, and goes away with rest or a medicine called nitroglycerin.Other symptoms include shortness of breath and fatigue with activity (exertion).CausesBad genes (heredity) can increase your risk. You are more likely to develop the condition if someone in your family has had a history of heart disease -- especially if they had it before age 50. Your risk for CHD goes up the older you get.Diabetes is a strong risk factor for heart disease. High blood pressure increases your risk of coronary artery disease and heart failure.Abnormal cholesterol levels: your LDL ("bad") cholesterol should be as low as possible, and your HDL ("good") cholesterol should be as high as possible.Smokers have a much higher risk of heart disease than nonsmokers.Chronic kidney disease can increase your risk.Other risk factors including alcohol abuse, not getting enough exercise, and excessive amounts of stress. TreatementsLDL cholesterol level less than or equal to 100 mg/dLGlycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels less than or equal to 7%Blood pressure less than or equal to 120/80 mmHg

High blood Pressure Symptoms:Chest pain, Ear noise or buzzing, Irregular heartbeat, Nosebleed, Tiredness, Vision changesCauses:How much water and salt you have in your bodyThe condition of your kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels, Adrenal gland tumor, Alcohol abuse, Anxiety and stress, Birth control pills, Coarctation of the aorta, Cocaine use, Cushing syndrome, Diabetes, Renal artery stenosisTreatments:Alpha blockersAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitorsAngiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)Beta-blockers

Blood CompositionPlasma, which is a clear extracellular fluidErythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs)Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs)


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