Cicero

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by AranyPoobalasingam
Last updated 7 years ago

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Subject:
Historical biographies

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Cicero

Cicero in the senate in 63 BC, accussing the conspiracy of Cataline (a plot invented by a group of people to overthrow the Roman Republic.)

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Biography

"Law is a natural force; it is in the mind and reason of the intellegent man by which justice and injustice are measured." - Marcus Tullius CiceroThis quote stated by Cicero, reflects the type of philosophical school Cicero's opinions best fit in.Natural Law"Human beings have the ability to use reason and can recognize these higher laws." CONTRIBUTIONS ' CRITIQUESCicero'scontributions are associated with Natural Law and morality.He had written a book on worshipping God and religion in his early teenage years."what nature has given to humans; what a quantity of wonderful things the human mind embraces; for the sake of performing and fulfilling what function we are born and brought into the world; what serves to unite people; and what natural bond there is between them." - Marcus Tullius CiceroIn this statement, Cicero is implying that as humans, we are able to reason and come to conclusion on what is considered moral and what is not. Therefore, if a law is not made without reasoning, it should not be considered a law.He was considered a very great philosopher in his time as all of these opinions were written down and expressed for people to have a new perspective; that is natural law. His contributions on Natural Law changed the way most laws were made. Reasoning on morality became a major factor when devising laws.

Cicero

Biography

January 3

106 BC

I

43 BC

December 7

90

Served in the military during the Social War

Began work as a lawyer in Rome

83

81

Cicero's first case, Pro Quinctio

79

Married Terentia, daughter of a Patrician

Appointed Praetor

66

59

Caesar is consul

44

Cicero delivers his “Philippics” against Mark Antony

Sources:Francis, T. (2009, June 1). The Romans - Timelines. Retrieved October 23, 2014, from http://www.the-romans.co.uk/timelines/cicero.htmFieser, J. (n.d.). Cicero. Retrieved October 23, 2014, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/cicero/#SH7a

Marcus Tullius Cicero is known to be a famous ancient roman politician and philosopher. He was born on January 6, 106 BC and was killed on December 4, 43 BC. Cicero was a man with great political ambition and competitive skill. In his early years he found a career in law to prepare himself for politics. By doing so, Cicero studied philosophy, rhetoric, and jurisprudence. His goal was to gain fame through his speeches and ideas. His career plan worked extremely well as he then later was elected for Quaestor, Aedile, Praetor, and finally, Consul.

As Consul he was able to:•Create laws•Be a senior judge•Dictate to a certain extent

II

Cicero had great deal of political power especially during the time in senate. His power reflected through his oligarchic relationships with the citizens of Rome. In 60 BC Cicero refused to unite with Julius Caesar on his plans of ruling and changing the politics of Rome. This refusal was a major turning point in his life as he had a change in his once proud character. It also led him to create enemies that planned to attack him. It went so far as to Cicero being physically assaulted and rejected from the country.Once Cicero was allowed to live and continue his career in Rome, he began work as a lawyer. But as Caesar was killed, Cicero’s death was soon followed because he would constantly make speeches about Mark Antony (another roman politician and a rival to Cicero.) Cicero being a disturbance to Antony’s power was killed in 43 BC.

III

To sum it all up: Cicero=ethics+religion+ morality in law

My legal theory was that true law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting...there will not be different laws at Rome and at Athens, or different laws now and in the future, but one eternal and unchangeable law will be valid for all nations at all times, and there will be one master and ruler, God, over us all, for he is the author of this law, its promulgator, and its enforcing judge.

One of Cicero’s goals during his career was to make significant changes to the Roman republic. He advocated members in the senate to further their virtue and morality, instead of their need for money and fame. By doing this, Cicero hoped to change the way society of the Roman republic understood law with philosophical knowledge.


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