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Hannah Kelly, Catherine Schmidt, Jenna Taylor, and Jennifer Wiley

Where is the chloroplast found? The chloroplast is found in eukaryotic cells that use the process of photosynthesis. Therefore, it is only found in plant and algae cells and not animal cells or prokaryotic cells (Kaiser 2007). Is chloroplast helpful or harmful?The chloroplast is helpful to plant cells because it uses the energy from the sun to create energy for the cell through photosynthesis giving plants their green appearance. There are many different parts of the chloroplast that work together to transform this energy from the sun into energy the cell can use to keep the plant functioning and healthy. This process of photosynthesis in the chloroplasts of plant cells allows not only the plant to receive its energy source but it also helps to regulate the amount of carbon in our environment. The regulation of carbon in our atmosphere by photosynthesis in chloroplasts, continues to help humans to breathe in fresh air. The popular, new trend of producing genetically modified crops is seen as helpful to some but also harmful in many ways. One way that genetically modified food is harmful is that the make up of the plant cells are genetically changed to produce bigger, more abundant, and more durable crops. Why this can be seen as harmful to humans and other organisms is because insects that do not consume the genetically modified crop are perishing due to the fact that pollen from the genetically engineered crops is being carried by the wind to the plants that they do it. This means the genetically engineered crops are not purposely killing off insects but in an indirect way they are causing harm to certain insect populations(Whitman 2000).Are there any human health issues associated with the chloroplast?The idea of genetically modified plants runs the risk of concern for human health risks. There is concern that changing the genes and make ups of certain plants will cause humans to develop life threatening allergies to these plants. As far as scientists are concerned right now though, there is no specific risk on human health from genetically modified foods yet (Whitman 2000).Taxonomy of Chloroplast Chloroplasts evolved from a result of endosymbiosis in a process where nucleus encoded enzymes targeted other enzymes in the chloroplast to form the metabolic network. (Wang, Zhu, Chang, Chen, Li, Liu, 2009) Chloroplasts are photosynthetic and support the lives of most organisms. Chloroplasts were derived from endosymbiosis sharing the similarity with extant cyanobacteria in that they both have beta-barrel proteins in their outer membranes. There are two distinct BamA homologs, Toc75 and OEP80 that were derived early in the life of the chloroplast. A protein import apparatus was needed for transfer of genes from the endosybiont to the host cell nucleus, therefore showing that the two homologs were substantial before the conversion of the cyanobacterial endosymbiant into the chloroplast (Hsu & Inoue, 2009). According to the endosymbiotic theory, the chloroplast was formerly a free living bacteria that was taken into another cell (Alberts, 2002). Cyanobacteria are known as the ancestors of chloroplasts and are a diverse phylum of bacteria able to carry out photosynthesis but they are also gram- negative meaning they have a double membrane. Because the chloroplast is such a main part of plant cells, it can be found in basically all parts of classification that a plant is found. In taxonomy, cyanobacteria is it's own phylum leading to many more parts of classifications (Haeckel, 1867).

Structure of a Chloroplast

(Rader, 2012)

What does the chloroplast do?Chloroplast are organelles found in plant cells whose main function is to perform photosynthesis. Additionally, chloroplasts construct molecules that cells need to function, such as amino acids and lipids (Sakamoto, Miyagishima, & Jarvis, 2008). Chloroplast use energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide and water, producing glucose and oxygen. Glucose is a type of food for the plant and gives it energy to grow (Rader, 2012).What does a chloroplast look like?Chloroplasts are a little different from other organelles. They have their own DNA, they have thier own membranes for support, and they have a greenish tint. This comes from the chemical chlorophyll, which is found on thylakoids. We call a stack of these thylakoids a granum. There are multiple granum inside a single chloroplast. The spaces between the granum are called the stroma. It is here that the sugar is actually produced (Rader, 2012).

Without the chloroplast, plant cells would not be able to function, leaves wouldn't be green, and trees would not produce oxygen!!

Pros & Cons!Pros:*Posters are appealing to the eyes.*Students can be creative.*Students can share blogs.*Students can learn technology skills.*Students can embed videos and direct links.Cons:*The poster is hard to maneuver.*There is not enough space for a lot of information.*There is no spell check.I would not recommend this website to create a project. The program is not user-friendly.

Lead Fascilitator: HannahAPA Editor: JenniferResource Locators: Catherina & Jenna