Child and Adolescent Learning

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Child and Adolescent Learning

Nature vs. NurtureNature- "Inherited characteristics and tendencies that influence development"Nurture- "Environmental conditions that influence development"(McDevitt & Ormrod, 2013, p.5)These elements can affect who we turn out to be.Children are programmed genetically, however; our environment can impact that development.

Behaviorism"B.F. Skinner suggest that children actively 'work' for rewards, such as food, praise, or physical contact, and tend to avoid behaviors that lead to punishment" (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2013, p. 13, as cited by Skinner, 1953, 1957)

Educators need to gather student data in a variety of ways:AssessmentObservationResearchInterviewsQuestionnaires

"Be optimistic that children can learn essential skills throughout childhood and adolescence."

"Give children opportunities to exercise their emerrging executive functions."

McDevitt & Ormrod, 2013, p.160-161

"Consider the connections that exist among cognitive processes, emotional experiences, and bodily sensations.

"Vygotsky believed that the child is a social being, and cognitive development is led by social interactions.""Piaget, on the other hand, felt that the child was more independent and that development was guided by self-centered, focused activities."

Howard Gardner developed the ideaof multiple intelligences.Children should have opportunities toexpress their knowledge through variousmethods.(McDevitt & Ormrod, 2013)

"Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle[2]."(



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